01/03/2016

Kakinomoto Hitomaro

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高雄内供奉 - Takao Naigubu Tengu, see below
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Kakinomoto Hitomaro 柿本人麻呂 Hitomaru 人丸 / 人麿
(c. 662 – 710)

- quote
a Japanese waka poet and aristocrat of the late Asuka period. He was the most prominent of the poets included in the Man'yōshū Poetry Collection (万葉集 Manyoshu), and was particularly represented in volumes 1 and 2. He is ranked as one of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals.
From the Heian period period on, he was often called "Hito-maru" .



敷島の 大和の国は 言霊の 助くる国ぞ まさきくありこそ
Shikishima no Yamato no kuni wa kototama no tasukuru kuni zo asakiku ari koso

..... In the prefatory essay to the Kokin Wakashū compilation of poetry, Ki no Tsurayuki called him Uta no Hijiri — a divine poet equal to the Nara period poet Yamabe no Akahito, a high regard echoed by later poets such as Fujiwara no Teika. Ikeda Munemasa wrote Portrait of Hitomaro and His Waka Poem. Modern waka poets like Masaoka Shiki and Saito Mokichi considered him one of greatest poets in the history of Japanese literature.

In Masuda, Iwami Province in Shimane Prefecture, there are two Kakinomoto shrines, Takatsu Kakinomoto Shrine and Toda Kakinomoto Shrine. It is said that Kamoshima in Masuda is Hitomaro's death place and Toda is Hitomaro's birthplace. The priest of Toda Kakinomoto Shrine is Ayabe, and he is the 49th of Hitomaro's mother's line.

In Akashi, Hyōgo Prefecture there is Kakinomoto Jinja, a shrine devoted to Hitomaro. The shrine holds an annual utakai (waka party) devoted to him.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

かきのもと‐の‐ひとまろ - 柿本人麻呂

敷島の 大和の国は 言霊の 助くる国ぞ まさきくありこそ
My country, Shikishima, the country of Yamato, is a country to which kotodama has imparted
prosperity / good fortune. So I hope/pray that it comes to no harm.

The Question of Kotodama
- source : Peter Goldsbury
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Kakinomoto Jinja 柿本神社 Shinto Shrine in Akashi, Hyogo
Hitomaru Jinja 人丸神社 / Kakimoto Sha 柿本社

1-26 Hitomarucho, Akashi, Hyogo / 明石市人丸町1-26

This shrine was relocated to Mount Hitomaruyama in 1620 by 小笠原忠政 Ogawawara Tadamasa, Lord of Akashi, who was a great admirer of Kakinomoto.



on top of Mount Hitomaruyama 人丸山 Founded in 887.
Deity in residence : 柿本人麻呂朝臣
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


A shrine in his honor, with amulets and pottery figures :

okutopasu - オクトパス - oku to pass - octopus
if you put it up there (on your desk) you pass the examination !



. Octopus (tako 蛸 / たこ) .

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source : city.tatsuno.lg.jp/rekibun

Kakinomoto from Akashiyaki pottery 明石焼
They were made for the shrine, but in a typoon in 1957, the kiln was destroyed.

. Hyogo Folk Art - 兵庫県  .


天離る 夷の長通ゆ 恋ひ来れば
明石の門より 大和島見ゆ

amazakaru hina no nagachiyu koi kureba Akashi no to yori Yamatoshima miyu

Far away from the capital I come to Akashi Strait
longing for the capital, the Island of Yamato will be out of sight





In the compound of the shrine is a tree called 盲杖桜 "Blind Stick Cherry"
Once upon a time a blind person from Tsukishi, Fukuoka came here to pray for health, reciting the following words :


amulet for good health

ほのぼのと まこと明石の 神なれば  我にも見せよ 人丸の塚
honobono to makoto Akashi no kami nareba ware ni miseyo Hitomaru no zuka

and was healed in an instant, leaving his walking stick, which turned into a cherry tree.

. Health Amulets 健康御守 kenkoo omamori .

- - - - - HP of the shrine
- source : kakinomoto-jinja.or.jp -




燈火の明石大門に入らむ日や漕ぎ別れなむ 家のあたり見ず
tomoshibi no Akashi no ooto ni iramu hi ya kogiwakarenamu ie no atari mizu

Down into the straits
of Akashi, land of torchlight,
the sun will soon sink:
and I - mist I row away,
beyond sight of my home?


Traditional Japanese Poetry: An Anthology
Steven D. Carter
- source : google books - More poems by Kakinomoto -


人丸塚
More Shrines and places dedicated to Kakinomoto in Hyogo :
- reference source : cultural-experience.blogspot.jp -
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Toda Kakinomoto Shrine 戸田柿本神社
Hitomaro's birthplace
イ856 戸田町 益田市 島根県



The priest of Toda Kakinomoto Shrine is from the 綾部家 Ayabe family, and he is the 49th of Hitomaro's mother's line.

- quote -
This shrine is dedicated to Kakinomoto Hitomaro who was a great Japanese poet in the Nara era, about 1300 years ago. It’s said that the shrine was originally built on Kamoshima Island near the mouth of Masuda River. But the shrine sank off the coast of Masuda due to a tsunami (big tidal wave) in 1026. Only the statue of Hitomaro floated to Matsuzaki and the shrine was rebuilt there.
Afterward in 1681, the shrine was moved and built in Takatsu by Koremasa Kamei who was lord of Tsuwano.
Hitomaro was born in Toda village. After he grew up, he went to Nara( the capital city on that time) and served as a court poet for three emperors: - Tenmu, Monbu and Jitoh.

He traveled various places, supporting these emperors and making many poems. About 450 of his poems were put in Manyoshu, a book of the oldest poems in Japan. When he was older, he came back to Masuda and died at Kamoshima in the year 724.
The successive emperors of the Edo era had dedicated many poems to this shrine.They are displayed in the treasury of this shrine.

On leaving his wife as he set out from Iwami for the capital:

Along the coast of Tsunu
On the sea of Iwami
One may find no sheltering bay,
One may find no sequestered lagoon.
O well if there be no bay!
O well if there be no lagoon!
Upon Watazu’s rocky strand,
Where I travel by the whale-haunted sea,
The wind blows in the morning,
And the waves wash at eve
The sleek sea-tangle and the ocean weed,
All limpid green.
Like the sea-tangle, swaying in the wave
Hither and thither, my wife would cling to me,
As she lay by my side.
Now I have left her, and journey on my way,
I look back a myriad times
At each turn of the road.
Father and father my home falls behind,
Steeper and steeper the mountains I have crossed.
My wife must be languishing
Like drooping summer grass.
I would see where she dwells ...
Bend down, O mountains!


- source : visit-masuda.main.jp/hitomaro -


- - - - - HP of the Shrine
万葉の時代から1300年、
その生誕秘話を今に語り継ぐ「語家 katarai」があった!
- source : hitomaro.com-

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Takatsu Kakinomoto Shrine  高津柿本神社
Kamoshima in Masuda is Hitomaro's death place.
島根県益田市高津町上市イ−2616−1



高津柿本神社(たかつかきのもとじんじゃ)は、島根県益田市高津町に鎮座する旧県社。歌聖柿本人麿を祀る神社で、正式名称は柿本神社。柿本人麿を祀る柿本神社は日本各地に存在するが、その本社を主張している。鎮座地は丸山の東に張り出した尾根筋の鴨山(高角山)山頂に位置し、境内を含めた一帯は祭神にちなんで、昭和50年代から島根県立万葉公園として整備されている。
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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Fujisaki Hachimangu 藤崎八幡宮 Kumamoto, Kyushu
3-1 Igawabuchimachi, Chuo Ward, Kumamoto

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founded in 935 by the order of Emperor Suzaku.
Fujisaki Hachimangu was destroyed during the Seinan Rebellion of 1877 and rebuilt at its current location. Being a Hachiman Shrine, the main kami enshrined is Emperor Ojin, but as with most major shrines there are a multitude of secondary shrines within the grounds including Tenmangu, Susano, Onamuchi, and unusually Kakinomoto Hitomaro the famed 7th century poet. ...
- reference source : -


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Katsuragi Kakinomoto Jinja 葛城 柿本神社
187-1 Kakinomoto, Katsuragi City, Nara

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The shrine is dedicated to Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, one of the first ranked poets in Manyoshu, Japan's oldest anthology of poems. He died in Iwami no kuni in Masuda City, Shimane Prefecture, but was reburied in 770, and this shrine was built by his tomb.



Together with Yogenji Temple next to the shrine, on April 18, which is the anniversary of Hitomaro’s death, every year, the Chinponkanpon Festival is held.
People recollect him by his poem concerning Katsuragi:

Spring willows, the clouds over Mt. Katsuragi,
Remind me of my sister, Standing or sitting.


- source : city.katsuragi.nara.jp -


柿本山 影現寺 Kakinomotozan Yogen-Ji
奈良県葛城市柿本161 / 161 Kakinomoto, Katsuragi City, Nara

- HP of the temple
- reference source : yougenji.jp/guide -

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高雄内供奉 - Takao Naigubu

He is one of the
. 四十八天狗 48 important Tengu of Japan .

also known as[
Shinzei 真済(しんぜい)
高雄僧正 Takao Sojo - "Priest with high learning" (attained at Jingo-Ji)
柿本僧正 Kakinomoto Sojo


Shinzei practised for 12 years at the temple 神護寺 Jingo-Ji and later came to attend to the Emperor as a teacher 御斎会.

He is venerated at founder of the temple 影現寺 Yogen-Ji in Nara, Katsuragi town 奈良県葛城市.

He studied Mikkyo Buddhism with Kobo Daishi. He often practised austerities at Takao 高雄の峯. Once he saw the honorable Lady 藤原明子 Fujiwara no Meishi (染殿后 Somedono no Kisaki) and felt love trouble in his heart. He died soon afterwards and became a blue demon. First he tormented Somedono and later he turned into an Ootengu 大天狗 Great Tengu.

欲に惑い天狗・鬼と化す
文徳天皇の女御で清和天皇の母である藤原明子(染殿后)に一目惚れした真済が、死後、紺青色をした鬼、あるいは天狗と化して彼女のもとに現れ悩ませる。そして比叡山無動寺の相応和尚に退治されるという話。延喜18年(918年)~23年の間に書かれたとされる『天台南山無動寺建立和尚伝』をはじめ、『拾遺往生伝』巻下の相応伝、『古事談』巻三、『宝物集』巻二などに載っている。なお、類似の説話に『今昔物語集』巻二十、第七話「染殿ノ后、為天宮嬈乱事」があるが、この話では紺青鬼(表題は「天宮=てんぐ」だが本文では鬼)と化すのは真済でなく大和葛木の金剛山の聖人で、相応和尚による退治もなく、后は衆人環視の中、鬼と情交に及ぶに至り、天皇もなすすべがなかったという絶望的結末となっている。この真済や相応和尚が登場しない形の説話の出典は、延喜17年~18年ころ三善清行が書いた『善家秘記』(散逸)とされる。[7]時期的に相応和尚の伝記成立とほぼ同じだが、おそらくは、『今昔』型の説話が先にあって、それを相応和尚の伝記に素材として取り込んだ際、天台宗対真言宗という構図が持ち込まれ、真済が紺青鬼・天狗にされたのであろう。
ー More legends about Shinzei
- reference source : wikipedia -

- quote -
The Empress Somedono is possessed by a tengu (天狗).
The Empress Somedono (829-900) was the wife of Emperor Montoku (r. 850-858).
Also known as Akirakeiko, she was the daughter of the Regent Fujiwara no Yoshifusa (804-872), chief adviser to the Emperor. She was the mother of Emperor Seiwa (r. 858-876).
“Empress Somedono was possessed by a tengu. Several months passed by, but nobody could exorcise the tengu. The tengu announced: ‘Unless the buddhas of the three eras appear, who could dare oppose me.'
After some time
the priest Sõõ (831-918) who had founded Mudõ Temple on sacred Mount Hiei was summoned to perform an exorcism.
Sõõ prayed to Amida Buddha for a week, but his prayers had no effect on the tengu. Sõõ then returned to Mount Hiei to pray instead to Fudõ Myõ-õ, the Immovable Wisdom King.
Fudõ Myõ-õ
sat upon his great dais facing the south. When Sõõ sat to pray to Fudõ Myõ-õ, the Wisdom King turned away from Sõõ and faced the west. When the priest seated himself in the west, Fudõ Myõ-õ turned to face the east. The priest again sat in the east facing Fudõ Myõ-õ, but the Wisdom King again turned to face the west. After a few more times at trying to pray to Fudõ Myõ-õ, the Wisdom King finally returned to his original position facing the south.
The priest seated himself again in the south and with tears in his eyes, begged Fudõ Myõ-õ, 'I request an answer to my prayers, why do you turn away from me?' Fudõ Myõ-õ looked into the teary eyes of the priest and spoke, 'In accordance with my vow that if a person keeps my spell even once, I will protect him for lives to come, I have not responded to your petitions and have turned away from you. This is my reason, in the past, the priest Shinzei of Ki kept my spell; however, because of a slightly wrong attachment, he fell into the realm of tengu and now torments the Empress.



Because of the original vow, I must protect this tengu. You must go to the palace and secretly whisper to the tengu, 'Are you the tengu of Kaki no moto, the priest Shinzei of Ki known as Ki no Sõjõ? As he answers, lower your head and perform an exorcism by quietly chanting the magic Buddhist spell of the Daiitoku. The tengu will then be bound by this spell. Meanwhile, I will absolve him of his wrong attachment and lead him back to the path of the Buddha.’ Sõõ was deeply moved by the words of Fudõ Myõ-õ. He did as he was instructed, asking the question and performing the exorcism. He was able to successfully seize the tengu and banish it. The Empress Somedono recovered soon after."

The tengu that possessed Empress Somedono was Shinzei (800-860), the priest of Ki known as Ki no Sõjõ. Shinzei was a disciple of Kõbõ Daishi (774-835), the founder of Shingon-shu Mikkyõ (esoteric) Buddhism. He transformed himself into a tengu and possessed the Empress because he supported Prince Koretaka as the new emperor in place of Prince Korehito.
- more is here :
- source : hayakawajunpei.tumblr.com © James Kemlo -

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Other high priests who turned into Tengu
玄隈 Genbo - 、慈恵 Jiei Daishi (Hieizan), 尊雲 Sonun

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CLICK for more statues of Hitomaro .

柿本人麻呂にまつわる全国の神社仏閣(まとめ)
(A long list of shrines in Japan in honor of Hitomaro.)
- source : cultural-experience.blogspot.jp -

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source : photozou.jp - 花兄 さん

柿本人麻呂像 statue carved by Enku san !

. Welcome to Master Carver Enku 円空 ! .

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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

Hitomaru Ki 人丸忌 (ひとまるき) HITOMARU, Kakimoto Hitomaru
Hitomaru Ki 人麿忌(ひとまろき)
Hitomaru Matsuri 人丸祭(ひとまるまつり)

陰暦3月18日 third lunar month, 18th day
. WKD - Kigo for Spring .


小机にもたれ心や人丸忌
kozukue ni motare kokoro ya Hitomaru ki

松瀬青々 Matsuse Seisei (1869 - 1937)


Hitomaru and his "small desk" (kozukue 小机)


source : blog.goo.ne.jp/OTSUMITSU/e
柿本人麻呂像 松村景文筆 - Paintings of Kakinomoto


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人丸をまつると云へる机かな
尾崎迷堂

鳥の名の貝がらひろふ人丸忌
三田きえ子

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CLICK for more specialities !

Hitomaro was a truly "divine" Waka poet and is revered in many shrines in Japan, for various reasons.
. 柿本神社 Kakinomoto Shrines in Japan .
- Introduction -

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. Matsuo Basho in Akashi 松尾芭蕉 .


蛸壺やはかなき夢を夏の月
takotsubo ya hakanaki yume o natsu no tsuki


蝸牛 角ふりわけよ 須磨明石
katatsuburi tsuno furiwake yo Suma Akashi


足洗うてつひ明けやすき丸寝かな
ashi aroote tsui akeyasuki marune kana


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. Manyooshuu, Man'yōshū 万葉集 Manyoshu, Manyo'shu .
Collection of One Thousand Poems

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source : mfa.org/collections - William Sturgis Bigelow Collection

Poem by Kakinomoto Hitomaro: (Actor Iwai Kumesaburô III as) Matsuura Sayohime
from the series Comparisons for
Thirty-six Selected Poems (Mitate sanjûrokkasen no uchi)
「見立三十六歌撰之内 柿本人丸  松浦さよ姫」 三代目岩井粂三郎
by Utagawa Kunisada I (Toyokuni III) (Japanese, 1786–1864),

Honobono to Akashi no ura no asagiri ni shima kagureyuku fune o shizo omou
ほのぼのと あかしの浦の 朝ぎりに 島がくれゆく 舟をしぞ思ふ

Faintly with the dawn
That glimmers on Akashi Bay,
In the morning mist
A boat goes hidden by the isle -
And my thoughts go after it.

Tr. Edwin A. Cranston


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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

Hyogo, Akashi 明石市
variations about the legend of a blind man getting healed at a Shrine in honor of Kakinomoto.

筑紫の盲人が柿本人麻呂を祭る柿本神社に行き、
「ほのゞとまこと明石の神ならば 我にも見せよ人丸の塚」
という短歌を詠んで祈り続けると、満願の日に視力が回復した。その時いつまでも栄えよと祈りを込めて挿したのを盲杖櫻という。

kame 亀 turtle
水戸の龜屋という穀物問屋の主が、眼病を患いついに失明してしまった。主はたまたま人丸塚の事を聞いて参篭し、不思議な夢を見た。大きな龜が主を乗せて、清水の側に下ろしたという夢で、実際に清水があったので、神のお告げと思い、その水で洗眼すると視力が回復した。

moojoozakura 盲杖櫻 盲杖桜 "Blind Stick Cherry"
明石の人丸社に座頭が参詣して祈請したところ、眼が開いたので、不要になった杖を庭に挿した。翌春、その杖から芽吹き、花が咲き、桜の木になった。

- reference : nichibun yokai database -




CLICK for more dolls !
歌仙人形 百人一首 柿本人麻呂 


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- Reference - Japanese - 柿本人麻呂 -
- Reference - English -

Kakinomoto Hito Maro / Kakinomoto-no asomi Hitomaro
- reference -


- quote -
During the Yamato era, high ranking people had the term “Maro” attached to their names, (e.g. Kakinomoto Hito Maro, a 7th century poet, or “Abenonaka Maro”, an 8th century writer). Later on, the “Maro” became “Maru”. Both “Maro” and “Maru” are derived from the Aramaic word “Mar,” meaning “Lord,” “Sir” or “Saint.” The Church of South India, which was founded by the Apostle Thomas, is called the “Mar Thoma Church,” or “St. Thomas Church.” It is also of interest to note that “Mar” was also a title given to priests of the Eastern Church (Joseph, Jr., 2008).
- source : projectjapan.org-


. Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets .

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