30/12/2017

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Welcome ! Willkommen !

This is an index of all the persons introduced in the Darumapedia.

. Daruma Pilgrims Gallery .


. Personal names used in Haiku 俳句  .

. WKD : Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets .

. WKD : 松尾芭蕉 Matsuo Basho and his friends .

. WKD SAIJIKI : Memorial Days of Famous People .


and many more

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Gabi Greve
June 2013


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16/06/2017

Fuma Kotaro ninja

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Fuuma Kootaroo, Fūma Kotarō 風魔小太郎 Fuma Kotaro
(? - 1603)


source : dustin on facebook
drawing from the Hojo Godaiki (written by Joshin Miura, 1565-1644) depicting Fuma Kotaro and his band of rappa (ninja) raiding a Takeda camp.

He was like an ONI demon - 鬼のような異相の持ち主であったという

. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - Index - .

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- quote
... the name adopted by the leader of the ninja Fūma clan (風魔一党 Fūma-ittō) during the Sengoku era of feudal Japan. According to some records, his name was originally Kazama (風間).
The Fūma clan and Fūma Kotarō
The clan was based in Kanagawa Prefecture, specializing in horseback guerrilla warfare and naval espionage. According to some sources, the family has roots in the 10th century when they served Taira no Masakado in his revolt against the Kyoto government. The use of the name started with the first leader (jonin) of the clan: originally surnamed "風間" (Fūma), with a different kanji, it was later changed to homophone 風魔. Each subsequent leader of the school adopted the same name as its founder, making it difficult to identify them individually. This school was in the service of the Hōjō clan of Odawara.

Fūma Kotarō was the fifth and the best known of the Fūma clan leaders.
Born in Sagami Province (modern Kanagawa Prefecture) on an unknown date, he became notorious as the leader of a band of 200 Rappa "battle disrupters", divided into four groups: brigands, pirates, burglars and thieves. Kotarō served under Hōjō Ujimasa and Hōjō Ujinao. His biggest achievement came in 1580, when the Fūma ninja covertly infiltrated and attacked a camp of the Takeda clan forces under Takeda Katsuyori at night, succeeding in causing severe chaos in the camp, which resulted in mass fratricide among the disoriented enemies. In 1590, Toyotomi Hideyoshi laid siege to Odawara Castle, which eventually fell, and the Hōjō clan was forced to surrender.

When the Tokugawa shogunate came to power, the remnants of Fūma-ryū were reduced to a band of brigands operating in and around Edo. A popular but fictional story says that in 1596, Kotarō was responsible for the death of Hattori Hanzō, a famous ninja in the service of Tokugawa Ieyasu, who had tracked him down in the Inland Sea, but Kotarō has succeeded in luring him into a small channel, where a tide trapped the Tokugawa gunboats and his men then set fire to the channel with oil. Kotarō was eventually caught by the shogunate's special law-enforcement force, guided by his rival and a former Takeda ninja Kosaka Jinnai (高坂甚内), and executed through beheading by an order of Ieyasu in 1603.

- - - - - In folklore and popular culture

In a folk legend, he is often an inhuman figure: a supposedly part-oni monstrous giant (over 2 meters tall) with inverted eyes.
In fiction portrayals, Fūma Kotarō is often depicted as Hattori Hanzō's arch-rival. As the name Fūma literally means "wind demon", Fūma Kotarō's depiction is frequently more flamboyant, fantastical, and sometimes even demonic. In contrast, Hanzō is usually rendered with a relatively subdued appearance.
Kotarō is a player character in the video game Onimusha 2: Samurai's Destiny as a young ninja in the service of the Hōjō clan, also returning in the spin-offs Onimusha Tactics and Onimusha Soul. He is also a main character in the World Heroes fighting game series (as "Fuuma"), also featured in Neo Geo Battle Coliseum together with his main rival Hanzo.
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© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Onimusha 鬼武者 Demon Warrior



- quote -
Onimusha (鬼武者, literally "Oni Warrior") is a series of video games by developer Capcom.
The series makes use of the historic figures that shaped Japan's history, retelling their stories with supernatural elements. Most of the games are of the action-adventure game genre, a combination of third person combat and puzzle solving, where the protagonist wields the power of the Oni, enabling them to fight the Genma, the main enemy of the series. As of 2012, Onimusha is Capcom's sixth biggest franchise, behind the Resident Evil, Street Fighter, Mega Man, Monster Hunter, and Devil May Cry series.
- - - - - Onimusha: Warlords
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !



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忍者 - 鬼忍

. ninja 忍者 spies - Introduction .
Hattori Hanzo 服部半蔵, the famous Ninja from Iga (1541 - 1596) 
February 22 is the Ninja Day 忍者の日.

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. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - Index - .

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06/01/2017

Kose Kanaoka

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Kosei no Kanaoka 巨勢金岡 / こせ の かなおか Kose Kanaoka
Kose no Kanaoka

( ? 802 — ? 897)



- quote
Kose Kanaoka was a proponent of the artistic styles of the Tang dynasty of China. Though few of his works have survived, he is known to have painted landscapes and portraits. He also founded the Kose School of Art, which is named for him. He made the first tonal gradation, and the first Buddha in crayonage style.

Active during the formative days of the aristocratic culture of the Heian period (794–1185), he was reputed to have moved beyond Chinese-inspired subject matter and techniques and to have forged a new style of painting that was uniquely Japanese. As the scion of an aristocratic family, he held court rank and the office of director of the imperial garden.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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内部の襖(ふすま)や屏風(びょうぶ)には唐絵に変わり日本の風物を題材に、
なだらかな線・美しく上品な彩色
初期の大和絵の画家は巨勢金岡(こせのかなおか)
- reference source : heian-heyan.blog.so-net.ne.jp -


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Kannon Bosatsu 観音

伝説の絵師・画聖【“巨勢金剛(こせのかなおか)
- reference source : navitown.com/fukusenji/qa -

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source and more photos : kobe-u.ac.jp/~imakoma/mainichi

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

Many legends about a horse he painted that went off the painting to bring harm to a village. The horse would also eat the 萩の戸の萩 bush clover growing on gates.
There is also a legend from China about a painter of bulls who went wandering around at night.
『清波雑志』にも中国は江南の徐知諤が描いた牛が昼間出てきて草を食べ、夜には戻ってきたとある。

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Gifu 岐阜県 益田郡 Mashita district 下呂町 Gero

At the 蚕飼薬師堂 Kogai Yakushi Hall (with prayers for making silk) was a painting by Kanaoka (or maybe 狩野法眼 Kano Hogen) of a horse running away at night.
So someone painted a horse bridle to keep the horse in place.


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Kyoto 京都府

At the hall 武徳殿 Butokuden, in the eastern Pine Forest, there was a 鬼 Demon who ate humans.
So on the auspicious 19th day of the 9th lunar month in 892, Kanaoka was ordered to paint it on a sliding door to keep it in place.

At the temple 仁和寺 Ninna-Ji the story of the horse is told. To keep it in place the eyes were stamped out.

At the Imperial palace, a horse painted on sliding doors by Kanaoka was eating the bush clover from the gate. So the painting was changed and the horse got a strong bridle.

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Okayama 岡山

. Kibitsu Jinja 吉備津神社 .
Painting of a horse

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Tottori 鳥取県 倉吉市 Kurayoshi 余戸谷町

At the temple 長谷寺 Hasedera - the painted horse got a bridle painted to keep it in place.

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- reference : nichibun yokai database -

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- Reference - 巨勢金岡 -
- Reference - English -


. Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets .

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06/12/2016

Hanabusa Itcho

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Hanabusa Itchoo, Itchō 英一蝶 Hanabusa Itcho / Iccho
(1652 – 1724)


富士山図 Mount Fujisan seen from river 相模川 Sagamigawa

Hanabusa means "Flower Bouquet"
Itcho means "One Butterfly"

- quote
Hanabusa Itchō (英 一蝶, 1652 – February 7, 1724)
was a Japanese painter, calligrapher, and haiku poet. He originally trained in the Kanō style, under Kanō Yasunobu, but ultimately rejected that style and became a literati (bunjin). He was also known as Hishikawa Waō and by a number of other art-names.

Born in Osaka and the son of the physician Taga Hakuan, he was originally named Taga Shinkō. Hakuan was the official doctor for Lord Ishikawa of the Kameyama Clan in the Ise region.
Itcho studied Kanō painting with Kano Yasunobu, but soon abandoned the school and his master to form his own style, which would come to be known as the Hanabusa school.

In 1693 was arrested and thrown into jail.
He was exiled in 1698, for parodying one of the shogun's concubines in painting, to the island of Miyake-jima; he would not return until 1710. That year, in Edo, the artist would formally take the name Hanabusa Itchō.
In 1709 Shogun Tsunayoshi died, and in honor of the new government, Itcho was granted pardon to come back to Edo.

Most of his paintings depicted typical urban life in Edo, and were approached from the perspective of a literati painter. His style, in-between the Kanō and ukiyo-e, is said to have been "more poetic and less formalistic than the Kanō school, and typical of the "bourgeois" spirit of the Genroku period".
Hanabusa was the master of the later painter Sawaki Suushi.
Hanabusa
was a friend of haiku poet Kikaku and studied poetry under the master Matsuo Bashō, his haikai name was Gyoun.
He was an excellent calligrapher as well.
- source : wikipedia -

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Daruma 達磨


. Who is Daruma ? 達磨 だるまさん .
We have the story of a curtesan who commented about Daruma
"Well, he was sitting in quiet meditation for nine years, but we here have to sit and suffer in the Noisy Pleasure Quarters for more than ten years!"
The painter Hanabusa Itcho made a picture of the courtesan, which became the model of the Princess Daruma Dolls.


. Fujisan 富士山 Mount Fuji, Fuji-San .
Inrō in the Shape of Mount Fuji
18th–early 19th century - by Kajikawa School, based on a design by painter, calligrapher, and haiku poet Hanabusa Itchō (英 一蝶, 1652–1724).


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The Life and Afterlives of Hanabusa Itchô, Artist-Rebel of EDO
(Japanese Visual Culture)
by Miriam Wattles


Miriam Wattles recounts the making of Hanabusa Itchô (1652-1724), painter, haikai-poet, singer-songwriter, and artist subversive, in The Life and Afterlives of Hanabusa Itcho, Artist-Rebel of Edo.
Translating literary motifs visually to encapsulate the tensions of his time, many of Itch s original works became models emulated by ukiyo-e and other artists. A wide array of sources reveals a lifetime of multiple personas and positions that are the source of his multifarious artistic reincarnations. While, on the one hand, his legend as seditious exile appears in the fictional cross-media worlds of theater, novels, and prints, on the other hand, factual accounts of his complicated artistic life reveal an important figure within the first artists biographies of early modern Japan."
- source : amazon.com -


- quote M. Wattles : -
I have worked extensively on Hanabusa Itchô, someone lauded from the Edo period through to Taisho for being the father of giga, and so spent some time excavating “giga” as a genre of the Edo period. (Discused in my book, The Life and Afterlives of Hanabusa Itchô, 2013,
and in my essay “From Adverb to Noun: Some Thoughts on Hanabusa Itchô and the Instability of the ‘Giga’ Genre”
in Ota Shôko, ed, Edo no shuppan bunka kara hajimatta imeeji kakumei,” 2007)
- Follow the discussion here:
- source : PMJS listserve forum -

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source : library.metro.tokyo.jp/portals

Twelve Months: New Year
英一蝶十二カ月の内 正月 Hanabusa Iccho Jūnikagetu no Uchi Shōgatsu
Painted by Hanabusa Icchō / Hanabusa Itcho




nunozarashi 布晒し Nuno Sarashi Mai-zu - Dancing with Cloth





"The Falling Thunder God"

. kaminari 雷と伝説 Legends about Thunder and Lightning .





一休和尚酔臥図 Ikkyu, the priest, lying down drunk

寝並んで小蝶と猫と和尚哉
ne narande kochoo to neko to oshoo kana

sleeping in a row ...
the little butterfly, the cat
and this old priest


. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .

. oshoo 和尚 Buddhist priests in Haiku .

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. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .

. Mingei 民芸 Folk Art from Japan . 

. Welcome to Edo 江戸 ! .

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- Reference - 英一蝶 -
- Reference - hanabusa itcho -


. Authors and writers of the Edo period .

. Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets .

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02/12/2016

Kasane and Yoemon

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Kasane and Yoemon 累と与右衛門

A piece of real life, about a husband killing his wife and her revenge as a ghost.
This story later became a Kabuki play.



- quote
Meiboku Kasane Monogatari
The drama "Date Kurabe Okuni Kabuki"
was premiered in the 7th lunar month of 1778 at the Nakamuraza [casting]. It had an influence on the evolutions of "Meiboku Sendai Hagi". Many scenes from "Date Kurabe Okuni Kabuki" were integrated within "Meiboku Sendai Hagi".
"The play is based on a real event involving the Date clan of Sendai during the 1660's, but censorship prevented contemporary incidents being dramatized, so the drama was set during the Muromachi period (1336-1568), and names were changed to disguise the protagonists' identity."
(text courtesy of Jean Wilson 1998)
- - - Introduction
Kinugawa Tanizô, a sumôtori patronized by Lord Ashikaga Yorikane, assassinated the courtesan Takao, Yorikane's lover, in order to save him from his scandalous love affair about to bring ruin to his household. Kinugawa Tanizô succeeded in escaping and hid himself in the village of Hanyû. Disguising himself as a farmer and calling himself Yoemon, he married Kasane, the younger sister of both Takao and the tôfu maker Saburobei. Soon after their wedding, Kasane was cursed by Takao's evil spirit and her face was horribly disfigured. Kasane was not aware of the change, however, as Yoemon forbade her to use any mirror at home.
- snip -
Dobashi - The Earthen Bridge
When she arrives at the river bank near the earthen bridge, Kasane notices the approach of Kingorô and Princess Utakata. So she hides in a bush and overhears their conversation in which Kingorô persuades Princess Utakata to marry Yoemon. Yoemon arrives and asks Kingorô to hand over Princess Utakata. As he has not brought the 100 ryô, however, Kingorô refuses to comply and, being convinced that Yoemon is in fact Kinugawa Tanizô, threatens to betray him to the magistrate's office. As Kingorô runs off in the direction of the magistrate's office, Yoemon follows him in hot pursuit.



Kasane appears from the bush and, jealous of Princess Utakata who is going to marry her husband, attacks her with a sickle. Yoemon comes back and tries to stop Kasane and in so doing accidentally cuts her wife's throat with her sickle. When she dies her face miraculously recovers its original beauty.

The tôfu maker Saburobei, Kasane's elder brother, who has been hiding in a bush, appears and goes near his sister's body. Yoemon attempts to kill himself with the sickle to atone for the horrible murder of Kasane but is dissuaded by Saburobei. He cuts off Kasane's head and takes it to the magistrate's office to pass it off as that of Princess Utakata, who is wanted by the magistrate.
- source : kabuki21.com/kasane2



Utagawa Kunisada

「与右衛門 - 松本幸四郎」Yoemon - Matsumoto Koshiro
「累 - 尾上菊五郎」Kasane - Onoe Kikugoro


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source : mfa.org/collections/object/unuma-yoemon ...

Unuma: Yoemon and His Wife Kasane,
from the series Sixty-nine Stations of the Kisokaidô Road (Kisokaidô rokujûkyû tsugi no uchi)
「木曾街道六十九次之内 鵜沼 与右ヱ門 女房累」
by Utagawa Kuniyoshi 1852


. Nakasendoo 中山道 Nakasendo Road - Kiso .
Gifu Prefecture
52. Unuma-juku 鵜沼宿 (Kakamigahara)


- quote -
Unuma-juku 鵜沼宿
was the fifty-second of the sixty-nine stations of the Nakasendō.
It was also the last post station on the Inagi Kaidō. It is located in the present-day city of Kakamigahara, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. The eastern and western portions of the old post town joined together to become a formal post town in 1651. Unuma-juku is approximately six kilometers from the preceding post town, Ōta-juku.


print by Keisai Eisen

The old post town contains such historical treasures as Kuan-ji Temple, the ancient tomb of Ishozuka, and haiku-engraved monuments left by Matsuo Bashō.
- source : wikipedia -

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. Edo Kabuki .

. Welcome to Edo 江戸 ! .


. Famous Buddhist Priests - ABC-List .

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

Kasane カサネ / かさね
On the 11th day of the 8th month in 1647, Kasane was killed by her husband Yoemon at the river Kinugawa.
He later married again, but his wives were all killed by the jealous Yurei ghost-spirit of Kasane. His 6th wife bore him a child named 菊 Kiku, but this wife was also killed in September of 1671.



When Kiku was 13 years old, Kasane tried to possess Kiku, but was finally enlightened, healed from her jealousy and could pass on to the Buddhist Paradise.

- reference : nichibun yokai database -




死霊解脱物語聞書 - 江戸怪談を読む
小二田誠二 Konita Seiji (1961 - )

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rui, kasane 累(るい、かさね)

Yurei Attack!: The Japanese Ghost Survival Guide
By Hiroko Yoda, Matt Alt
O-Rui (Orui) お塁 (another reading for Kasane)
- Read the story at google books :
- source : Matt Alt, google books -

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- Reference - 累と与右衛門 -
- Reference - kasane yoemon -


. Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets .

- - - #kasane #yoemon - - -
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30/08/2016

Akkamura Shunsaku

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Akkamura Shunsaku 安家村俊作 "Shunsaku from Akkamura village"
佐々木俊作 Sasaki Shunsaku

(1810 - 1837)
Also known as 茂右衛門 Moemon, he later changed his name to Shunsaku.
He was the eldest son of the village leader 佐々木茂右衛門.

安家村 Akkamura is a small remote village in 岩手県 Iwate prefecture. In 1956 it became part of Iwaizumi 岩泉町安家.

Shunsuke was the leader of two farmer's rebellions in the Nanbu Domain 南部三閉伊一揆.
He kept a diary about the events in his village, its bad treatment by the Nanbu regents and the ongoing famine for about 19 years, from 1830 till 1848.
He was one of the leaders of the two
Sanhei Ikki 三閉伊一揆 Sanhei Rebellions of 1847 and 1854
after a severe famine, walking with about 16000 farmers and fishermen all the way to the domaine of the Date 伊達 in Sendai, asking for help.

It all begun with blowing a horagai ほら貝 conch shell from a small hill in 田野畑村 Tanohata village. The sound was heard and passed on and the people begun to move South. They wore a small straw bags with food and even took a bowl with them.
Every village carried their own flag.
Some even had fire weapons (the matagi hunters), others bamboo spears and swords.

They went South along the Tohoku coast, via 宮古 Miyako, 大槌 Otsuchi, 釜石 Kamaishi and finally to the domaine of Sendai.
This was just three days after Perry had shown up with four "black ships" in Uraga, near Edo.
The rebels had a long list of demands they wanted to be granted from their new regent, not only including the farmers and fishermen, but also merchants, salt producers, cloth dyers and other businesses.
Eventually their 49 demands 四十九カ条の要求 were granted in written, 「安堵状」, 「御百姓」
At first, nobody was punished for the rebellion. But eventually just one, Shunsaku, had to be punished to "keep the law".

Shunsaku was punished with exile to 下北半島 Shimokita Hanto.
He was later pardoned and went to Hokkaido, where he lived under the name of
菊池政美 Kikuchi Masami.

Shunsuke had also been to Shikoku in 1842, and took the chance to walk the Henro pilgrimage, writing another diary, 西国巡礼道中記 .

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安家村俊作 三閉伊一揆の民衆像 Akkamura Shunsaku : Sanhei ikki no minshūzō
Chadani Jūroku 茶谷十六 Chadani Juroku (1941 - )

- quote
佐々木俊作 Sasaki Shunsaku
1810-1873 江戸時代後期の農民。
- kotobank -

"安家村俊作とは 
安家村(あっかむら)は、昭和31年(1956年)まで岩手県下閉伊郡にあった村。現在の岩泉町安家にあたる。
- wikipedia -

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南部三閉伊一揆とは
四十九カ条の要求を実現
勤労人民の自覚と誇りが
一揆支えた自治と協同の力
- reference source : nouminren.ne.jp/dat - 新聞「農民」2002.9.16付

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俊作(菊地氏先祖代々)のお墓 Grave of Shunsaku and the Kikuchi family

安家村俊作 with photos (5)
俊作(菊地氏先祖代々)のお墓。
俊作の生家は安家村川口
『安家村俊作』 茶谷十六
『一揆の奔流』『一揆の奔涛』『いわいずみふるさとノート』 佐々木京一
- reference source : takuworld.blog15.fc2.com -

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. Welcome to Edo 江戸 ! .

. Famous Buddhist Priests - ABC-List .


. Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets .

- - - #akkamura #akkamurashunsakuiwate - - -
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Yukawa Shodo

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Yukawa Shoodoo 湯川松堂 Yukawa Shodo
(1868 - ? )

Painter of Nihonga 日本画家.
He was born in Wakayama, and know as Ainosuke 愛之助.
His teachers were 三谷貞広 Mitani Sadahiro and 鈴木松年 Suzuki Shonen (1848 - 1918).
He lived in Osaka and was still alive in 1915.
The exact date of his death is not known.


- quote
湯川松堂筆  達磨図 Daruma










- source : chilyarennjiyanoyasai

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湯川松堂筆『達磨図』Standing Daruma






- source : -

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. . . CLICK here for more Japanese Photos !

. . . CLICK here for more Photos in English !

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- Reference - 湯川松堂 -
- Reference - Yukawa Shodo painter -


. Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets .

- - - #yukawashodo - - -
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02/08/2016

Keichu Priest

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Keichuu, Keichū 契沖 阿闍梨 Keichu Ajari
(1640 - 1701)

- quote -
a Buddhist priest and a scholar of Kokugaku in the mid Edo period. Keichū’s grandfather was a personal retainer of Kato Kiyomasa but his father was a rōnin from the Amagasaki fief. When he was 13, Keichū left home to become an acolyte of the Shingon sect, studying at Kaijō in Myōhōji, Imasato, Osaka. He subsequently attained the post of Ajari (or Azari) at Mount Kōya, and then became chief priest at Mandara-in in Ikutama, Osaka. It was at this time that he became friends with the poet-scholar Shimonokōbe Chōryū (下河辺長流:1624 – 1686).



However, he disliked the worldly duties of his work and, after wandering around the Kinki region for a while, made his way back to Mount Kōya. Deeply influenced by the thinking of Kūkai, he also read widely in the Japanese classics under the patronage of Fuseya Shigeta (伏屋重賢), a patron of the arts in Izumi Province. After serving as chief priest at Myōhōji, Keichū spent his last years at Enju’an in Kōzu in the Province of Settsu.

His prolific works set a new standard in the study of the classics, though building on recent revivals of interest in the subject. When the daimyo of Mito, Tokugawa Mitsukuni, decided to sponsor an edition of the Man'yōshū, he commissioned Shimonokōbe Chōryū, heir to the learning of the great poet and Man’yō expert Kinoshita Chōshōshi (木下長嘯子:1569 – 1649), to undertake the project. However his dilatory approach, combined with illness, and finally death, impeded his work and the task fell to Keichū, a close friend.
The result was the latter’s Man’yō Daishōki (万葉集大匠記:1687-1690), which had a profound effect on kokugaku scholarship.


Manyo Daisho-Ki 万葉集代匠記 / 萬葉代匠記

Similarly his Waji Seiranshō   和字正濫鈔 (1693: A Treatise on the Proper way to Write Japanese Words) challenged the standard orthographical conventions set by Fujiwara Teika and reconstructed distinctions in the old Japanese lexicon based on the earliest texts. In addition to these Keichū wrote the
Kōganshō  厚顔抄 1691 A Brazen-faced Treatise, the Kokin Yozaishō, the Seigodan, the Genchū Shūi, and the Hyakunin Isshu Kaikanshō.
- source : wikipedia

kokugaku 国学 Japanese studies

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- quote -
Keichū
a commentary to the Nara-period poetry collection Man’yōshū (Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves, mid-8th c.).
Keichū’s aim in writing this work was to reconstruct as closely as possible the original meaning of the text by looking at a wide range of contemporary and near-contemporary sources. Within the work, Keichū discusses the basic principles of his approach to the study of the past, which can be summarized as follows:

Reconstruct the contemporary meaning of the work and avoid at all costs any interference from the modern reader’s expectations and beliefs.
Make use only of sources from the same time period or thereabouts.
Do not take for granted the theories contained in later commentaries, including traditionally authoritative ones, because they may not be accurate or not apply directly to the age of the Man’yōshū.

Keichū applied these principles not only to the Man’yōshū, but also to the Kokinshū and other important works of the past. Through his method he made a number of important breakthroughs that forever changed the face of scholarship on the classics.

Although Keichū’s method may seem obvious today, no one before him had used such a rigorous philological approach in waka studies. Traditionally, waka scholars studied under a master and the emphasis was on amassing the transmitted teachings of one’s school or “house” (ie) rather than on textual study. Keichū never studied under a specific master, and so was never bound by a master-disciple type of relationship. Even more important was the boom of book publishing, which enabled Keichū to obtain the texts he needed for his research with ease.

As sources for his commentary to the Man’yōshū, Keichū names the Nihon shoki (Chronicles of Japan, 720), the Kaifūsō (Collection of Fond Recollections, 751), the Shoku Nihongi (Later Chronicles of Japan, 797), the Kogo shūi (Gleanings of Ancient Words, 807), the Shinsen Man’yōshū (Newly Edited Man’yōshū, 894), and the Wamyō ruijūshō (Japanese Words by Category, ca. 938), all of which were written between the 8th and 10th centuries, and all of which were available in print when Keichū wrote Man’yō daishōki in 1683.
None of them had ever been printed prior to the late 17th century, so it can be said that Keichū’s text-based scholarship would have been impossible in earlier periods. That Keichū’s approach relied heavily on printed editions of the texts he studied can be seen from the many notes and comments that he personally wrote on his own printed editions of the classics. Keio University Library owns one such book (Fig.2).
- source : futurelearn.com/courses - Keio university -


. Man'yōshū 万葉集 / 萬葉集 Manyoshu Poetry Collection .
Manyoo-Shuu, Manyo-Shu, Manyoo'shuu, Manyōshyū
"Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves"

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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

Keichuuki, Keichuu Ki 契沖忌 Memorial Day for Keichu
契沖の忌日 / 正月二十五日 / 25th day of the first lunar month
- kigo for the New Year, late Winter or Spring -

一扇の軸を上座に契沖忌
issen no jiku o jooza ni Keishuu Ki

a scroll
of one fan on the seat of honor -
Keichu Memorial Day


. Iida Dakotsu 飯田蛇笏 .





. Memorial Days of Famous People - Saijiki .

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- reference : 契沖 -


. Famous Buddhist Priests - ABC-List .

- - - #keichu #manyoshu - - -
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31/07/2016

Chiyo no Fuji

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Chiyo no Fuji 千代の富士 Chiyonofuji
Kokonoe Oyakata 九重親方

(June 1, 1955 – July 31, 2016)



- quote
Chiyonofuji Mitsugu 千代の富士 貢
Mitsugu Akimoto (秋元 貢 Akimoto Mitsugu), was a Japanese champion sumo wrestler and the 58th yokozuna of the sport. He was the stable master of Kokonoe stable.

Chiyonofuji was one of the greatest yokozuna of recent times, winning 31 yusho or tournament championships, second at the time only to Taihō. He was particularly remarkable for his longevity in sumo's top rank, which he held for a period of ten years from 1981 to 1991. Promoted at the age of twenty-six after winning his second championship, he seemed only to improve with age and won more tournaments in his thirties than any other wrestler, finally retiring in May 1991 just short of his thirty-sixth birthday. This is in contrast to most recent yokozuna who have tended to retire around 30.

During his 21-year professional career Chiyonofuji set records for most career victories (1045) and most wins in the top makuuchi division (807). This caused him to be listed by Guinness World Records Both of these records were later broken by Kaiō Hiroyuki.

He won the Kyushu tournament, one of the six annual honbasho, a record eight consecutive years from 1981 until 1988, and also set the record for the longest postwar run of consecutive wins (53 bouts in 1988). That record stood for 22 years until Hakuhō broke it with his 54th straight win in September 2010.

In a sport where weight is often regarded as vital, Chiyonofuji was quite light at around 120 kg (260 lb). He relied on superior technique and muscle to defeat opponents. He was the lightest yokozuna since Tochinoumi in the 1960s. Upon his retirement he became an elder of the Japan Sumo Association under the name
Kokonoe Oyakata 九重親方.

Kokonoe underwent surgery for pancreatic cancer in July of 2015, and was noticeably weak when speaking to reporters at the Aki basho in September of that year. Having reportedly told associates that the cancer had spread to his heart and lungs, he had been hospitalized since the fourth day of the Nagoya tournament in 2016.
He died in Tokyo on July 31, 2016 at the age of 61.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !




Chiyo no Fuji
the long-time hero of all
Chiyo no Fuji



. Sumo wrestling 相撲 .
sumo wrestler, sumotoori 相撲取(すもうとり)


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His Kanreki dohyō-iri. One of only 10 performed ever.

九重親方(第58代横綱) - 還暦土俵入り!
- source : youtube.com -

- Reference - 千代の富士 -
- Reference - chiyo no fuji-

- - - #chiyonofuji - - -
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30/07/2016

Buddhist Priests List

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Famous Buddhist Priests - ABC-List


日本の名僧・高僧 88人


doogoo 道号 "Name of the Way" after a person entered priesthood


Some priests have their name as a kigo for Haiku.
. Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets and People .

Many of them already have their own page and are mentioned in boldface.
Check the ABC-List of this BLOG.
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Abutsu ni 阿仏尼 あぶつに Nun Abutsu-Ni (? - 1283)

Ankokuji Ekei 安国寺恵瓊 (1539 – 1600)


Baisan Monpon 梅山聞本 (?- 1417)

Bankei Yōtaku 盤珪永琢 Yotaku (1622 - 1693)

Banna 鑁阿 (ばんな) (1144 - 1199) (262)

Benkei, Musashibō Benkei 武蔵坊弁慶 Musashibo Benkei (1155–1189)


Chōgen, Choogen 重源 (1121 - 1206), Chogen, also known as Shunjōbō Chōgen 俊乗坊重源

Doogen 道元 Dogen Zenji (1200 - 1253)

Dookyoo 道鏡 Dokyo (? - 772)

Dooshoo 道昭 Dosho (629 - 700)


Eji 恵慈 えじ Eji (?~623?), Korean: Hyeja  
He was a tutor of Buddhism to Shōtoku Taishi.

Eikan 永観 Eikan (1032 - 1111)

Eisai (Yoosai) 栄西 Eisai 1141 - 1215)

Eizan Shookin 瑩山紹瑾 Eizan Shokin (1268 - 1325)

Eizon 叡尊 Eizon (1201 - 1290)

Enchin 円珍 / 圓珍 Enchin (814 - 891)

Enkan 円観  Enkan (1281 - 1356)

Enkuu, Enkū 円空 Enku (1632 – 1695)

Enni 円爾 Enni (1202 - 1280)

Ennin 円仁 Ennin Jigaku Daishi 慈覚大師 (794 - 864)

En no Ozune, Gyōja 役小角 En no Gyoja (634 - 706)

Ensai 円載 Ensai (? - 877)

Eshin Ni 恵信尼 Nun Eshin-Ni (1182 - ?1268)


Fukuda Gyookai 福田行誡 Fukuda Gyokai (1806 - 1888) (366)


Ganjin 鑑真 Ganjin / Jianzhen (688 - 763) Chinese monk

Gasan Jōseki, Jooseki 峨山韶碩 Gasan Joseki (1275 – 23 November 1366)

Genboo 玄肪 Genbo (? - 746)

Genshin 源信 Genshin (942 - 1017) (124)

Gesshoo 月照 Gessho (1813 - 1858) (354)

Getsushoo 月性 Getsusho (1817 - 1858) (352)

Gidoo Shuushin 義堂周信 Gido Shushin(1325 - 1388)

Gien 義淵(ぎえん) (? - 728)

Gudō Toshoku, Gudoo 愚堂東寔 Gudo Toshoku (1577 – 1661)

Gyooki 行基 Gyoki Bosatsu (668 - 749)

Gyooson, Gyōson 行尊 Gyoson (1057 - 1135) (136)


Hakuin Zenji 白隠禅師 Hakuin Ekaku (1686 - 1768)

Henjoo 遍昭 Henjo (816 - 890)

Hoonen 法然 Honen (1133 - 1212)

Hōzōin In'ei, Hoozoo-in 宝蔵院胤栄 Hozoin In-Ei (1521 – October 16, 1607)


Ikkyuu Soojun 一休宗純 Ikkyu Sojun (1394 - 1481)

Ingen 隠元 Eisai Zenji 栄西禅師 (1141 - 1215)

Ippen 一遍 Ippen (1239 - 1289)

Issan Ichinei 一山一寧  Issan(1247 - 1317)

Isshi Monju 一糸文守 Monju (1608 - 1646)


Jakuren 寂蓮 Jakuren (1139 - 1202)

Jakushin 寂心 Jakushin (? - 1001) (120)

Jien 慈円  Jien (1155 - 1225)

Jitchū, Jitchuu 実忠 Jitchu (? - 824)

Jiun 慈雲 Jiun (1718 - 1804)

Junjoo 俊ジョウ(草冠にイ乃) (1166 - 1227)

Juubin 守敏 Jubin (? around 800)

Juugen 重源 Jugen (1121 - 1206) - see Choogen


Kaisen Jooki 快川紹喜 Kaisen Joki (? - 1582) (268)

Kakuban 覚鑁 Kakuban (1095 - 1143)

Kakunyo 覚如 Kakunyo (1270 - 1351)

Kakushin Ni 覚信尼 Nun Kakushin Ni (1224 - 1283)

Kakuyuu 覚猷 Kakuyu (1053 - 1140) (鳥羽僧正 Toba Sojo)

Kangan Giin 寒巌義尹 Kangan (1217–1300)

Kanjoo 寛朝 Kanjo (?916 - 998)

Kawaguchi Chiekai 河口慧海 Kawaguchi Chiekai (1866 - 1945) (370)

Keichuu 契沖 阿闍梨 Keichu Ajari (1640 - 1701)

Kanzan Egen 開山慧玄 Kanzan(1277 - 1360)

Kenkai 兼海 Kenkai (1107 - 11 June 1155)

Kennyo 顕如 Kennyo (1543 - 1592) (276)

Kinkoku Shoonin 金谷上人 Saint Kinkoku Shonin (1761 - 1832) (316)

Kokan Shiren 虎関師錬 Kokan(1278 - 1346)

Kookei, Koogei, Kōkei 皇慶 Kokei (?977 – 1049)

Kooen 皇円 Koen (? - ?1169) 肥後阿闍梨 - Higo Ajari

Koogon 光厳法皇 Kogon Ho-O(1313 - 1364)

Kōsai, Koosai 幸西 Kosai (1163 – May 20, 1247)

Koun Ejō 孤雲懐奘 Ko-Un (1198 - 1280)

Kuukai 空海 弘法大師 Kukai Kobo Daishi (774 - 835)

Kuuya 空也 Saint Kuya (903 - 972)

Kyoonyo 教如 Kyonyo (1558 - 1614)


Mansai 満済 Mansai (1378 - 1435) (246)

Minchuu 明兆 Minchu (1351 - 1431) 

Mokujiki 木喰五行 Mokujiki Gogyo (1718 - 1810)

Mokujiki Oogo 木食応其 Mokujiki Ogo (1536 - 1608)

Mokujiki Tanshoo 木喰但唱 Mokujiki Tansho (? - 1641)

Mongaku 文覚 Mongaku (?1193 - ?1205)

Monkan 文観  Monkan (1278 - 1357)

Mugaku Sogen 無学祖元 Mugaku, Wuxue Zuyuan (1226 - 1286)

Mujū Dōkyō, Mujuu Dookyoo 無住道曉 Muji Dokyo (1 January 1227 - 9 November 1312)

Musoo Soseki 無窓疎石 Muso Soseki (1275 - 1351)

Myooe, Myōe 明恵 Myoe, Myo-E (1173 - 1232)


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. boozu 坊主 priest, お坊さん O-Bo-San .

oshoo 和尚 priest
nyuudoo 入道 Nyudo priest
shoonin, shônin 上人 saint, head priest of a temple
daitoko 大徳(だいとこ)daitoku だいとく priest of high standard
soojoo. sôjô 僧正 high-ranking priest, "archbishop"
meisoo 名僧 famous priest / monk
koosoo 高僧 high-ranking priest



Photo by Tamamura Kōzaburō (1856 - 1923)

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- - - many priests with names starting with NICHI belong to the Nichiren sect - - -

Nichigen, Buzen Nichigen 豊前日源 (?1263 – 1315)

Nichiji 日持 (Kaiko) (February 10, 1250 – ?1304)

Nichijin 日陣 Nichijin (May 30, 1339 - June 14, 1419)

Nichiken, Awaji Nichiken(淡路日賢 (1243–1338)

Nichimoku 日目 Nichimoku (1260 – 1333)

Nichiō, Nichioo 日奥 Nichio, NichiO (1565 – 1630)

Nichiren 日蓮 Saint Nichiren (1222 - 1282)

Nichiroo, Nichirō 日朗 Nichiro (1243 - 1320)

Nichizoo, Nichizō 日像 Nichizo(1269 - 1342)

Nikkō, Nikkoo 日興 Nikko (1246 –1333)

Nikoo, Minbu Nikō 民部日向 Mibu Niko (1253 - 1314)

Ninshoo 忍性 Ninsho (1217 - 1303)

Nisshin 日親 Nisshin(1407 - 1488)

Nisshō, Nisshoo 日昭 Nissho, (?1221 – 1323)

Nitchō, Nitchoo 日頂 Nitcho (1252 – April 19, 1317)

Nomura Moto Ni 野村望東尼 Nun Nomura Motoni (1806 - 1867) (350)

Noonin, Dainichibō Nōnin 大日房能忍 Nonin ( ? 1190)

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Ootagaki Rengetsu, Ōtagak 太田垣蓮月 Nun Otagaki Rengetsu (1791 - 1875)

Ootani Kooen Kubutsu 大谷光演 / 大谷句仏 Otani Koen (1875 - 1943)

Raigoo 頼豪 Raigo (1002 - 1084)

Rankei Dooryuu 蘭渓道隆 Rankei Doryu (1213 - 1278)

Rennyo 蓮如 Rennyo (1415 - 1499)

Rensei / Renshoo 蓮生 れんせい・れんじょう  Rensho / Renjo (1141 - 1208)

Rooben, Rōben 良弁  Roben (689 - 773)

Ryoogen 良源  Ryogen (912 - 985) (116)

Ryookan 良寛 Ryokan, Taigu 大愚 (1758 - 1831)

Ryoonin 良忍  Ryonin (1073 - 1132)

Ryuukoo 隆光 Ryuko (1649 - 1724)


Saichoo, Saichō 最澄 伝教大師 Saicho Dengyo Daishi (767 - 822)

Saigyoo Hooshi 西行法師 Saigyo Hoshi (1118 - 1190)

Sakuden 策伝 Sakuden (1554 - 1641)

Sengai 仙厓義梵 Sengai Gibon (175 1– 1837)

Sengaku 仙覚 Sengaku (?1203 - 1273)

Sesson Shuukei 雪村周継 Sesson (1504 - 1589)

Sesshuu 雪舟等楊 Sesshu Toyo (1420 - 1506)

Setouchi Jakuchō, Jakuchoo 瀬戸内寂聴 Nun Setouchi Jakucho (May 15, 1922 - )

Shimaji Mokurai 島地黙雷 Shimaji (1838 - 1911) (368)

Shinnyo 真如  Shinnyo 親王 (799 - 865) (132)

Shinran 親鸞  Shinran (1173 - 1262)

Shinshō, Shinshoo 真紹 Shinsho (797 – 873)

Shooboo 聖宝 Shobo (832 - 909)

Shoodoo 勝道 Shodo (735 - 817)

Shōkū, Shookuu 証空 Shoku (1177 - 1247), Seizan 西山

Shunkan 俊寛 Shunkan (c. 1143 – 1179)

Shunoku myooha 春屋妙葩 Shunoku Myoha(1311 - 1388)

- - soohei, sōhei 僧兵 Sohei, lit. "monk warriors", fighting monks

Suuden, Konchi-In Suuden 金地院崇伝 / Ishin Sūden 以心崇伝 Suden (1569 - 1633)

Suzuki Shosan 鈴木正三 Shosan (1579 - 1655) (288)

Suzuki Shunryū, Shunryuu 鈴木俊隆 Suzuki Shunryu (1904 - 1971) Zen


Taichō, Taichoo 泰澄 Taicho (682 – 767) - Tengu from Mount Hakusan
Etsu no Daitoku 越の大徳 - Great Man of Virtue from Etsu
Unpen Shoonin 雲遍上人 Saint Unpen Shonin
Shiramine Daisoojo 天狗 白峰大僧正 Tengu Shiramine Daisojo


Taigen Suufu 太原崇孚, 太原雪斎 Taigen Sessai (1469 - 1555) (266)

Taihan 泰範 (?817 ) disciple of Kukai (96)

Takeda Motsugai 武田物外 Takeda Motsugai (1795 - 1867)

Takuan, Takuan Sōhō 沢庵宗彭 Takuan Soho (1573 – 1645)

Tenkai 天海 Tenkai (1536 – 1643) / Nankōbō Tenkai 南光坊天海

Tettsū Gikai, Tettsu 徹通義介 Tetsu Gikai (1219 - 1309)

Tokuitsu 徳一 Tokuichi, Toku-Itsu (781? - 842?)


Uda Hoo-oo 宇多法皇 Uda Ho-O (879 - 931)


Yasutani Hakuun 安谷白雲 Yasutani Haku-Un (1885 - 1973) Kamakura Zendo

Yootaku, Bankei Yōtaku 盤珪永琢 Yotaku (1622 - 1693)

Yuien 唯円 Yuien,Yui-En (1222 - 1289) 

Yuukai 宥快 Yukai (1345 - 1416)

Yuuten 祐天 Yuten (1637 - 1718)


Zekkai Chuushin 絶海中津 Sekkai Chushin(1336 - 1405)

Zenjin ni 善信尼 Nun Zenjin-Ni (? sixth century)

Zenran 善鸞 Zenran (1217 - 1286)

Zooga、Sooga 増賀 Zoga, Soga (917 - 1003) (122)

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知っておきたい日本の名僧 / 瓜生中 Uryu Naka



日本名僧列伝 / 柏原祐泉 (編集), 薗田香融 (編集)



事典 日本の名僧 / 今泉淑夫 (編集)
180人の僧を没年順に収載した



名僧でたどる日本の仏教 / 末木文美士



名僧 100人
- reference : ne.jp/asahi/kiwameru/kyo -


more books about 日本の名僧 - 16 pages
日本名僧辞典 1976
日本をつくった名僧一〇〇人
日本の名僧入門―日本人の心を創りあげた二十人の素顔と生きざま
- source : www.amazon.co.jp -

List with books about the priests
- reference : yoshikawa-k.co.jp-


"Japanese Buddhist monks" - ABC-list
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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