01/01/2016

Ushiwakamaru Yoshitsune

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .
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牛若丸 Ushiwakamaru 源の義経 Minamoto no Yoshitsune
(1159 - 1189)
Shanaoo, Shanaō 遮那王 Shanao (his boyhood name at Kurama)
Hoogan 判官 Hogan (his court title)



Ushiwakamaru and Benkei at the Gojo Bridge in Kyoto 京の五条の橋

- quote
a general of the Minamoto clan of Japan in the late Heian and early Kamakura period. "It is evident that Yoshitsune had a genius for offensive warfare...and although Yoshitsune had no knowledge of naval warfare he had the advantage of an acute strategic insight and a quick eye for tactical chances.
..... He was put under the care of Kurama Temple (鞍馬寺), nestled in the Hiei Mountains near the capital of Kyoto,
..... The fight between Ushiwakamaru and the bandit chief 熊坂長範 Kumasaka Chohan in 1174. Yoshitsune was only 15 when he defeated the notorious bandit leader.
..... In 1180, Yoshitsune heard that Yoritomo, now head of the Minamoto clan, had raised an army at the request of Prince Mochihito to fight against the Taira clan (also known as the Heike) which had usurped the power of the emperor. Yoshitsune shortly thereafter joined Yoritomo, along with Minamoto no Noriyori, all brothers who had never before met, in the last of three conflicts between the rival Minamoto and Taira samurai clans, known as the Genpei War.
Yoshitsune defeated and killed his rival cousin Minamoto no Yoshinaka at the Battle of Awazu in Ōmi Province in March 1184 and then defeated the Taira at the Battle of Ichi-no-Tani in present-day Kobe. In 1185, Yoshitsune defeated the Taira again at the Battle of Yashima in Shikoku and destroyed them at the Battle of Dan-no-ura in present-day Yamaguchi Prefecture.
Yoshitsune was subsequently named Governor of Iyo.



..... However
the death of Yoshitsune has been very illusive. According to Ainu historical accounts of Yoshitsune's death it is said he did not commit seppuku and instead escaped to Hokkaido and acquired the name of Okikurumi/Oinakamui. Moreover, in Hokkaido the Yoshitsune Shrine is erected in the town of Biratori also known in Ainu as Pira Utur (ピラウトゥル).
Another
famous Japanese theory of Yoshitsune's whereabouts after evading death comes from the idea that Yoshitsune made his way past Hokkaido by sailing to the mainland continent of Asia and became Genghis Khan.
..... Yoshitsune has long been a popular figure in Japanese literature and culture due to his appearance as the main character in the third section of the Japanese literary classic Heike Monogatari (Tale of the Heike). The Japanese term for "sympathy for a tragic hero", Hōgan-biiki (判官贔屓 lit. Hōgan favor), comes from Yoshitsune's title Hōgan, which he received from the Imperial Court.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- - - - - Persons related to Yoshitsune

. Yoshitsune and his loyal retainer, Musashibo Benkei 弁慶 .

. Ushiwakamaru and Joruri Gozen 浄瑠璃御前 .
Yoruri Hime 浄瑠璃姫 Princess Joruri in Aichi

. Kaneuri Kichiji 金売吉次 / 吉次信高 / 橘次末春 / 金売り吉次 .
Gold merchant of Kyoto, he brought Ushiwakamaru to Hiraizumi.

. Kumasaka Choohan 熊坂長範 Kumasaka Chohan .

. Ushiwakamaru and Minatsuru-hime 皆鶴姫 .
at the temple 観音寺 Kannon-Ji in Kesennuma, Miyagi

. With Shizuka Gozen 静御前 at Mount Yoshino 吉野山 .
Futari Shizuka 二人静
Yoshitsune Senbon Zakura 義経千本桜 Yoshitsune and the Thousand Cherry Trees, Kabuki play

Tokiwa Gozen 常磐御前 Lady Tokiwa - His Mother (1123 - ?1180)

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- - - - - Places related to Yoshitsune

. Aikyoo-In 愛敬院 Aikyo-In - Miyagi .
Minamoto Yoshitsune is said to have passed here on his travels up North to Hiraizumi.

Gikeiji 義経寺 Gikei-Ji at Minmaya 三厩村 - Dragon Horse Temple 龍馬山 Iwate
GIKEI is another reading for Yoshitsune

. Hiraizumi 平泉 in Michinoku / Tohoku .
Fujiwara no Hidehira 藤原秀衡 (1122? - 1187)
He offered shelter to the young Minamoto no Yoshitsune, who was escaping Kyoto.

. Kurama yama 鞍馬山 Mount Kurama in Kyoto .

. Noma Daibo 野間大坊 Omido temple .
the place where Minamoto no Yoshitomo, the father of Yoritomo and Yoshitsune, was killed

. Soojoogatani 僧正谷 /僧正ガ谷 Sojogatani, Sojogadani . - Kurama, Kyoto


CLICK for original link . kanshin.com
Ushiwakamaru 牛若丸

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- - - - - Food related to Yoshitsune

. Dorayaki (どら焼き, どらやき, 銅鑼焼き, ドラ焼き) .

. Ushiwaka mochi 牛若餅 Ushiwaka rice cakes  
Named after Minamoto no Yoshitsune in his boyhood (Ushiwaka, the one as strong as a bull), when he was trained at the Kurama Mountain Temple by the Forest Goblins (tengu).

. Yoshitsune raamen 義経ラーメン Yoshitsune ramen soup .


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- - - - - Folk art related to Yoshitsune


CLICK for more samples of dolls !

. Kokeshi, こけし / 小芥子 / 子消し wooden doll .

. Nagoya karakuri ningyoo 名古屋 からくり人形 from Aichi .
Ushiwaka and Benkei 牛若 弁慶


. Surugadako, Suruga tako 駿河凧 kite from Suruga .
. . . . . with Ushiwakamaru 牛若丸

tako 義経 弁慶 凧 kites with Yoshitsune and Benkei
. . . CLICK here for more Photos !


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Yoshitsune and Benkei viewing Cherry Blossoms
Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1839-1892)

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- - - - - Yoshitsune and his horses 義経の馬 - - - - -

kataha no ashi 片葉の葦 one-sided reed
In 福島県 Fukushima, 鹿島町 Kashima, in the hamlet 栃窪 Tochikubo there lived a farmer named 久七 Kyushichi who had many fine horses. His most vital and strong one was 太夫黒 Tayu-guro. It often roamed the mountain of 立石山 Tateishiyama and came to the pond Mano no Ike 真野の池 to feed on the reeds.
Often it did not come home for the night. It even had a web for swimming like a duck at his legs (mizukaki 水掻き).
The horse grew up to a superb animal and Kushichi presented it to the Lord, 藤原秀衡 Fujiwara no Hidehira. Hidehira gave it to Yoshitsune when the young man left for the war.
Since Tayu-guro used to eat only the leaves of one side of the reeds, they were soon called "one-sided reeds".



Tayuuuguro 太夫黒 Tayuguro, Tayu-guro .
He rode at the Hiyodorigoe 鵯越 crossing the Hiyodori Pass 鵯峠  (near Kobe, Rokkosan).


Utagawa Hiroshige 歌川広重

Yoshitsune Climbing Up the Rough Part of Hiyodori Pass
Yoshitsune's daring descent from Hiyodori Pass in his surprise attack against the Heike.
..... fierce fighting starts at Ikuta-no-mori and Ichi-no-tani, but neither side is able to gain a decisive advantage. Yoshitsune’s cavalry descends a steep slope at Hiyodori Pass decisively attacking the Taira from the rear.
The Taira panic and flee to the boats.....
- reference -

There is another legend about the end of Taiyu-Guro from Kagawa, 志度町 Shido town.
When lord 佐藤継信 Sato Tsugunobu (1150 - 1185), one of the 義経四天王 four brave retainers of Yoshitsune, gave his life to save his Master, Yoshitsune came to his grave to mourn for him. He asked 覚阿上人 Saint Kakua from the temple Shido-dera to perform the rites for Ysugunobu. To show his gratitude, he also gave Kakua his beloved horse, which was a gift to Yoshitsune from the Emperor. The priest Kakua 覚阿上人 cared for the horse at the temple 志度寺 Shidodera, but after the events at Hiyodori Pass, it was given to 極楽寺 at nearby 鴨部馬次 Kabe, Umatsugi.
The horse lived there for a while and then suddenly and then run away one day.
The priest was in great worry about loosing this famous imperial horse and all villagers began to search for it. Finally they found it dead in front of the grave of Tsugunobu
So the priests held another great ritual for the horse and built a grave mound for Yoshitsune's Taiyu-guro, very close to 牟礼の王墓 Mure no Ohaka, the grave mound of the son of 景行天皇 Emperor Keiko Tenno, the Lord of Sanuki no Kuni, 神櫛王 Kangushi.
Kangushi no Ohaka 神櫛(かんぐし)王墓 Grave of King Kangushi

Satō Tsugunobu
Japanese warrior and the brother of Satō Tadanobu.
Tsugunobu died in the Battle of Yashima, while protecting Minamoto Yoshitsune from an arrow shot of Taira no Noritsune by riding between Yoshitsune and Noritsune. Tsugunobu was buried in Mure, Kagawa by Taira no Noritsune himself.
Tsugunobu and his brother Tadanobu "were 'given' to Yoshitsune by Fujiwara no Hidehira when Yoshitsune left Oshu to join Yoritomo.
Tsugunobu is mentioned in Hagakure in the passage about martial valor.
- source : wikipedia -


. Shidodera 志度寺 Shido-Dera (Shido-Ji) .
Shikoku Henro Temple Nr. 86


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Nara 吉野郡 Yoshino district

In the mountains of 大台山 / 大台ヶ原山 Odaigahara Yama there is a horse of Yoshitsune.
But in reality it is a huge kamoshika 羚羊 (大かもしか) Japanese serow
Rupicapra rupicapra. Gemse, Gams.

Ipponashi, the horse of Yoshitsune - BUT 一本足は義経の馬であった - が

Obamine no Ipponashi 伯母峯の一本足 ?His horse Ipponashi
- 一本足は義経の馬であったが、人を食うようになったので家臣に鉄砲で射られた。そして熊野の湯へ養生に行った。使われた鉄砲は正月の何日かに格闘を思い出して汗をかくという。
- 一本足は、寝ない子を脅すときに母親が用いたりする。一本足は義経の馬との混合型であるとも言われる。

Ippondatara, Ippon-datara 一本ダタラ - Ippon tatara
at the pass 伯母峠 Obamine
in Wakayama, 北山村
伯母峠に一本ダタラと呼ばれる、片目片耳の馬のような姿をした恐ろしいものがいて、義経の放った馬の化身だと言われた。普通の人は襲ったが、郵便屋さんは襲わない。特に12月20日に伯母峠を通るといけない。

奈良県の南部、大台ヶ原山から北西に、経ヶ峰(きょうがみね)、伯母ヶ峰(おばがみね)と高く険しい山々が続き、やがて少し緩やかな伯母峰峠へ。
かつて、この峠を、吉野と熊野を結ぶ東熊野街道が通り、最大の難所と恐れられていた。急坂と冬の深雪、しかも、「一本足のたたら」と呼ばれる妖怪も出没したというのだ。
その昔、峠の南、天ヶ瀬に住む射場兵庫(いばひょうご)という鉄砲の名人が犬を連れ狩りに出た。と、山の中で何かが動いた。背中一面に熊笹を茂らせた大猪だった。鉄砲を撃つ。確かに獲物を射止めた手応えはあったが、なぜか動物の姿はなく、血の跡だけが残っていた。
数日後、熊野の湯の峰に、足を傷)めた一人の野武士が湯治に来た。彼は宿の主人に「部屋をのぞくな」と固く言ったが、不審に思った主人がそっと中をうかがうと、寝ていたのは、背に熊笹を生やした大猪だった。主人の驚きの声に目を覚ました大猪の亡霊は、姿を消した。 (※1)

その後、伯母峰峠あたりで一本足の妖怪が村人や旅人を喰うという噂が広まった。目が一つで、大きな赤い口。丸太のような足が一本。やがて街道はさびれ、旅人は難儀した。そこで、丹誠(たんせい)という徳の高い僧が法力で妖怪を封じ込めた。 (※2)ただ、12月20日だけは妖怪の自由に任せるという約束で、今も「果ての20日は峠を通るな」と言い伝えられている。
- source : enyatotto.com/oodai -



Now Ippon-Datara is a Yokai monster.
Ippon-Datara is a Persona of the Hermit arcana. It specializes in Darkness element attacks.

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According to some stories, an Ippon Datara is a very skillful blacksmith, giving them two possible origins:
-- Ghost of a blacksmith banished from his village (losing an eye or a limb wasn't uncommon hazard).
-- Manifestation of Ameno-me-Hitotsu, kami of the forge, metalcraft, and blacksmithing.

User with this ability either is or can transform into a Ippon Datara, one-legged mountain spirit with appearance of either human-like or a huge pillar. Regardless they have a single eye on like a Cyclops, a massive body and only one leg. Normally they don't show themselves to humans and let only their presence be felt, but at certain times they may become aggressive.
- source : powerlisting.wikia.com -


. - yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters - Introduction - .

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Nara 吉野郡 Yoshino district 龍門村 Ryumon mura

akuryyoo 悪霊 evil spirit
Yoshitsune camped at the pondside 義経淵 Yoshitsunefuchi in the open and was ?killed by the enemy. To our day this place is haunted by evil spirits.
On the rock there are the remains where Yoshitsune slept and where his horse slept.
義経淵は、義経がここで野宿して敵に殺された.

奈良吉野の蹴抜の塔(隠れ塔)
- source : yositune1189 源義経大辞典 -

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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Fukushima 白河市 Shirakawa

sakura no tsue 桜の杖 walking stick from cherry wood
In the 10th month of the year 1180 the local regent 信夫庄司 Shinobu Shoji Satō 佐藤元治 Sato Motoharu had his two children,
嗣信 Tsugunobu and 忠信 Tadanobu become retainers of Yoshitsune.
As a proof of their loyalty he planted a stick of cherry wood in the ground and spoke:
"If my two sons will be loyal to Yoshitsune, this stick will grow into a tree.
Otherwise this stick will wither away!"

「わが子が君に忠であれば生きよ、さもなくば枯れよ」
The stick grew into a beautiful cherry tree and was called 庄司戻し桜 Shoji modoshi sakura.

Tsugunobu (1158 – 1185) was killed at Yashima, in Kagawa prefecture, protecting Yoshitsune from an arrow by the enemy Taira no Noritsune.
Tadanobu (1153 - 1186) was killed in Kyoto. Both were killed in defense of Yoshitsune.



The tree withered later but was replanted.

Matsuo Basho, Oku no Hosomichi 奥の細道
- - - Station 14 - Sato Shoji, Satoshoji 佐藤庄司 旧跡 - - -


"Crossing the ferry of Moon Halo, I came to the post town of Rapid's Head.
The ruined house of the brave warrior Sato was about a mile and a half from this post town towards the foot of the mountains on the left. I pushed my way towards the village of Iizuka, and found a hill called Maruyama in the open field of Sabano. This was the site of the warrior's house. I could not refrain from weeping, when I saw the remains of the front gate at the foot of the hill. There was a lonely temple in the vicinity, and tombs of the Sato family were still standing in the graveyard. I wept bitterly in front of the tombstones of the two young wives, remembering how they had dressed up their frail bodies in armor after the death of their husbands. In fact I felt as if I were in the presence of the Weeping Tombstone of China.
I went into the temple to have a drink of tea. Among the treasures of the temple were the sword of Yoshitsune and
the satchel which his faithful retainer, Benkei, had carried on his back."

Ioji-temple 医王寺 and the Sato family
Tomb of the Sato brothers
. - - - Station 14 - Remains of Sato Shoji, Satoshoji 佐藤庄司 旧跡 - - - .

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兵庫県 Hyogo

Shizuka ga haka 静が墓 grave of Shizuka, his wife
由来の分からない古墳があった。そこの木を牛飼いの男が切ったところ、正気でなくなったので、人々が尋ねたところ、自分は義経の妾、静と名乗り、男が勝手に木を切ったので怒っていると言った。人々が信じられずに舞ってほしいと扇を渡すと、すばらしい舞をし、和歌を詠んだ。

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岩手県 Iwate, 平泉町 Hiraizumi

Oni Santa Sennin 鬼三太仙人
衣川に異人がいて、坊主頭で眼光鋭く、名は名乗らず、文武両道を談じ、子どもの癇の呪いや占いをした。礼は受け取らず、枸杞茶を好み、朱塗りの箱を1つ持ったきりだった。伊達政宗が無理に召して箱を開けると、三軸三翰三張と観音像があり、その像に鞍馬東光坊から鬼三太に与えるとあって名がわかった。昔の事を尋ねられると、たいていは忘れたがと言って、義経主従の最後を語った。

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京都府 Kyoto

Tengu 天狗 - 兵法場
Ushiwakamaru studied sword fighting with the Tengu. The place were they practised is called 兵法場.
heihoo 兵法 Heiho, military principles and additionaly swordsmanship and Tengu magic.
If people pick up a stone from this area, whey will always win in a fight.

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Miyagi, Sendai - - some legends are also told in Iwate.

岩戸三光宮 Iwado Sankogu and 青麻神社 Aoso Jinja

. Aoso Jinja 青麻神社 "Green Hemp Shrine" .

- - - - - and more about his faithful retainer
. Hitachibo Kaison Sennin 常陸坊海尊仙人 .
- - - - - Seietsu Sennin 清悦仙人 - - - - -

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Nagano, 鼎町 Kanaemachi

kiriishi, kiri-ishi 切石
Benkei and Ushiwakamaru came here.
- 弁慶と牛若丸がやってきた。道をさえぎる石を切ろうとして、弁慶は太刀を使ったが、石に傷をつけただけであった。次に金剛力がやってみると、石は見事に一刀両断にされた。
- 義経が弁慶らを伴って京都から鎌倉に向かっている時、ある石に弁慶が薙刀で切りかかったが、それは切れなかった。代わって義経が切りつけると、見事に真二つに切れてしまった。
- 源義経が頼朝に追われている時、通った道に大きな石があったので先に勧めなかった。弁慶が薙刀で切りつけたが、割れなかった。次に義経がやってみると石は真っ2つになった。

komaishi, koma ishi 駒石
弁慶が道を塞いでいる大石を切りつけようとすると、義経が駒に乗って見物していた石が駒石である。今でも蹄の跡が残る。石の平らな面に、浅い円形の凹があるものが駒石である。


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Nara 奈良県
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大柳生町 Oyagyucho

Tokiwa Gozen 常盤御前
She gave birth to Yoshitsune at the temple 不自由寺.
Tokiwabuchi 常盤淵
- 産ケ淵は、たらい淵、常盤淵ともいい、常盤御前がこの岩のくぼみで牛若丸に産湯をつかわせたという。
- 藤の森は、常盤御前が牛若丸を生んだところという。

牛若丸から習った棒術 添上郡柳生村柳生
柳生藩の棒術長谷川流の祖、長谷川金右衛門が、甞て奈良からの帰り、大柳生村を通ると、子供の泣声が、夜更けの山中に聞こえた。それは、常磐御前が、牛若丸を産み落として、旅の苦労をして居るのだった。金右衛門は不憫に思って、親子を柳生の宅に連れ帰り、牛若丸を養育してやった。此の縁故によって、後に牛若丸が鞍馬山に居た時、金右衛門は彼山で再会し、棒術を伝えられた。それが此の流儀だと云う。
今も大柳生には、常磐の森があり、産湯の淵があり、当時不自由であったというので、不自由寺と称する寺もある。(橋本春陵)
source : kamado.net/den_yamato/soekami_den

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. 白狐源九郎 The White Fox Genkuro .
at 源九郎稲荷社 Genkuro Inari Jinja,
The shrine is named after Genkuro Minamoto Yoshitsune

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- source : nichibun yokai database -
15 義経
牛若丸 - ウシワカマル

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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -



夏草や兵どもが夢の跡
natsukusa ya tsuwamono-domo ga yume no ato

Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 in Hiraizumi

This famous haiku gave rise to many discussions.


Yoshitsune ki 義経忌 Yoshitsune Memorial Day
(1159 – June 15, 1189) - - - kigo for mid-summer

. natsukusa ya tsuwamono-domo ga yume no ato .

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- Reference - 源の義経 -

- Reference - English -


. Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets .

- - - #yoshitsune #ushiwakamaru #minamotonoyoshitsune - - -
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