01/06/2015

Dokyo and Koken

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Dookyoo, Dōkyō 道鏡 Dokyo
Monk Dokyo, Priest Dokyo (700 - 772)





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Dōkyō (700 – May 13, 772)
was a Japanese monk of the Hossō sect of Buddhism; and he was a political figure in the Nara period.
When Dōkyō cured the illness of Empress Kōken in 761, his place in her court was made secure and influential. When she returned to the throne as Empress Shōtoku following the Fujiwara no Nakamaro Rebellion, Dokyo was given authority over religious and civil matters.

In 766, an oracle from the Usa Shrine in Buzen Province was reported to predict peace in Japan if Dōkyō were named emperor. Soon after, a second oracle was brought to Kyoto by Wake no Kiyomaro. It stated:

Since the establishment of our state, the distinction between lord and subject has been fixed. Never has there been an occasion when a subject was made lord. The throne of the Heavenly Sun Succession shall be given to one of the imperial lineage; wicked persons should immediately be swept away.

In response to the second oracle, Dōkyō had Wake no Kiyomaro sent into exile in Ōsumi Province.

When the empress died, Dōkyō was banished from Nara.

- - - - - Timeline
752 (Tenpyō-shōhō 4): Dōkyō was called to the court of Empress Kōken
761 (Tenpyō-hōji 5): Dōkyō cured empress of a serious illness
763 (Tenpyō-hōji 7): He was appointed Shōsōzu in the Buddhist hierarchy
765 (Tenpyō-jingo 1, 2nd month): Empress Shōtoku gave Dōkyō the newly created title of daijō-daijin zenji (Meditation Master who ranks as Chancellor)
766 (Tenpyō-jingo 2): Dokyo claimed that an Usa Hachiman oracle said that he should become Hō-ō (法王, literally, king of the dharma).He was given the title.
770 (Jingo-keiun 4): In the 5th year of Empress Shōtoku's reign, she died; and Dōkyō was exiled to Shimotsuke Province.

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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もう一つの神託「道鏡」事件の真相を探る      
昔々、
奈良に都があった頃、道鏡(どうきょう)と言う、とても偉いお坊さんが居ました。このお坊さんは中国語は勿論、梵語(サンスクリット語)もペラペラの有数の知識人であったばかりでなく、気功術も会得した「超能力」をも兼ね備えていた超人だったので、天皇さまの病気も得意の呪法で、あっという間に治すことが出来ました。元気を取り戻された天皇さまは、この天才超人・道鏡を大変御気に召し、最初は少僧都に、次は大臣禅師に、また次には太政大臣禅師に任じられ、天平神護二年七月(766)には、ついに法王にまで任じられたのです。
それから1年半が過ぎた神護景雲三年正月三日、九州にある宇佐八幡宮は『道鏡を皇位につけよ』とのお告げがあったと奏上し、偉いお坊さんも、自分から望んで天皇になろうと思いました。と、まあ簡単に言えばそれだけのお話しなのですが、ことが皇位(天皇の位)に関る事であっただけに朝廷内は大騒動になったのです。それでは、事件の主役・道鏡とは、一体どのような人物だったのでしょう。
- source : www.ten-f.com/doukYoujiken -

Usa Hachiman Jinja 宇佐八幡神社
熊本市龍田町にある弓削神宮 Yuge Jinja in Kumamoto

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「道鏡か否か?愛に揺れた女帝」




source : chachachiako

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Kooken Tennoo 孝謙天皇 Koken Tenno Empress Kōken
- 称徳天皇 Empress Shōtoku. Shotoku
Empress Kōken (孝謙天皇 Kōken-tennō, 718 – August 28, 770),
also known as Empress Shōtoku (称徳天皇 Shōtoku-tennō), was the 46th (with Empress Kōken name) and the 48th monarch of Japan (with Empress Shōtoku name), according to the traditional order of succession.
Empress Kōken first reigned from 749 to 758, then, following the Fujiwara no Nakamaro Rebellion, she reascended the throne as Empress Shōtoku from 765 until her death in 770. Empress Kōken was involved in the Rasputin-like affair with priest Dōkyō and appointed him Grand Minister in 764. In 766 he was promoted to Hōō (priestly emperor) and in 770 had tried to ascend to throne by himself. Death of Empress and resistance of the aristocracy destroyed his plans. This incident was a reason for the later move of the Japanese capital from Nara (Heijō).
In the history of Japan, Kōken/Shōtoku was the sixth of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant.
. . .
Koken's reign was turbulent, and she survived coup attempts by both Tachibana Naramaro and Fujiwara no Nakamaro. Today, she is remembered chiefly for her alleged affair with a Buddhist monk named Dōkyō (道鏡), a man she honored with titles and power. An oracle from Usa Shrine, the shrine of the kami Hachiman (八幡 in Usa, is said to have proclaimed that the monk should be made emperor; but when the empress sent Wake no Kiyomaro (和気清麻呂) to verify the pronouncement, Hachiman decreed that only one of imperial blood should ascend to the throne.

Bender, Ross.
"The Hachiman Cult and the Dōkyō Incident,"
Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 34, No. 2 (1979). pp. 125–153.

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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Yuge no Dookyoo 弓削道鏡 Yuge no Dokyo
道鏡(どうきょう、文武天皇4年(700年)? - 宝亀3年4月7日(772年5月13日))

生地 - 河内国
没地 - 下野国
宗派 - 法相宗
師 - 義淵

奈良時代の法相宗の僧。物部氏の一族の弓削氏の出自で、弓削櫛麻呂の子。俗姓が弓削連であることから、弓削道鏡(ゆげのどうきょう)とも呼ばれる。兄弟に弓削浄人。天智天皇の皇子である志貴皇子の子とする異説もある。祈祷の力をもって皇室に取り入って権力を握り、政治に容喙した。


道鏡塚(下野市の龍興寺)

宇佐神託と左遷
姦通説 / 俗説 / 関連づけられた人物
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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"The Monk who Moved a Capital ”
(from the Nihon Ryōiki )
It begins
"In ancient Japan, there was an unmarried Empress named Kōken . . .one day she fell ill and a handsome young Buddhist monk named Dōkyō went to her bedside to pray for her health.”

The credited author is one “Takeshi Hanamoto,”
Ross Bender

new translation of Nihon Ryōiki by Burton Watson
-- Record of Miraculous Events in Japan (Columbia University Press, 2013).

The Vermilion Bridge: A novel of 8th Century Japan / Shelly Mydans
(Doubleday 1980).

Narachō no Seihen to Dōkyō (Yoshikawa Kōbunkan) / Takinami Sadako

Women in Japanese Religions (New York University Press, 2015). Barbara Ambros
. . .she notes
"Ultimately both Empress Wu Zetian and Shōtoku were reviled as bad rulers by later Confucian historians who resented both their patronage of Buddhism and the fact that they were female rulers." (pp. 50-51).
Wu Zetian of course was the only woman who ruled China as an Empress in her own right.


- quote from June 3, 2015
It is an interesting question whether Buddhist healing monks could actually attend at the bedside of an Empress. The eminent monk Genbō 玄昉 established the Naidōjō within the Nara palace, and apparently served as a healing monk for Miyako, the mother of Shōmu. The Shoku Nihongi entry for Hōki 1.8.17, after the death of Empress Shōtoku on the fourth day of the month, says that “Over one hundred days had passed during which she was unable to attend to the affairs of government. During this time there were no officials who were able to have audience with her. Only the Kura no Suke Jr 3 Kibi no Ason Yuri went in and out of the bedchamber, reporting to her on affairs.” The lady Yuri was a relative of the Udaijin Kibi no Ason Makibi.

Dōkyō’s obituary from Hōki 3.4.7 says that he met the Empress at the Hora Palace and served as a healing monk. 従幸保良。時侍看病稍被寵幸。
Incidentally the term chōkō 寵幸, which some have seen as proof of an untoward relationship between the Empress and the monk, is not gender-specific or evidence of a sexual liason. It is also applied to the relationship between the Emperor Kōnin and the Sangi Ōtomo no Sukune Ojimaro. (Shoku Nihongi, Enryaku 1.2.3)
- Ross Bender


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