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Tokugawa Tsunayoshi


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Tokugawa Tsunayoshi 徳川綱吉
inu kuboo, Inu-Kubō 犬公方 Inu Kubo, the Dog Shogun

(1646 - 1709)

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the fifth shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan. He was the younger brother of Tokugawa Ietsuna, thus making him the son of Tokugawa Iemitsu, the grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.

He is known for instituting animal protection laws, particularly for dogs. This earned him the nickname of "the dog shogun."
- snip -
In 1691, Engelbert Kaempfer visited Edo as part of the annual Dutch embassy from Dejima in Nagasaki. He journeyed from Nagasaki to Osaka, to Kyoto, and there to Edo. Kaempfer gives us information on Japan during the early reign of Tokugawa Tsunayoshi. As the Dutch embassy entered Edo in 1692, they asked to have an audience with Shogun Tsunayoshi. While they were waiting for approval, a fire destroyed six hundred houses in Edo, and the audience was postponed. Tsunayoshi and several of the ladies of the court sat behind reed screens, while the Dutch embassy sat in front of them. Tsunayoshi took an interest in Western matters, and apparently asked them to talk and sing with one another for him to see how Westerners behaved. Tsunayoshi later put on a Noh drama for them.
- snip -
Owing to religious fundamentalism, Tsunayoshi sought protection for living beings in the later parts of his rule. In the 1690s and first decade of the 18th century, Tsunayoshi, who was born in the Year of the Dog, thought he should take several measures concerning dogs. A collection of edicts released daily, known as the Edicts on Compassion for Living Things (生類憐みの令 Shōruiawareminorei, Shorui Awaremi no Rei) told the populace, inter alia, to protect dogs, since in Edo there were many stray and diseased dogs walking around the city.
Therefore, he earned the pejorative title Inu-Kubō (犬公方:Inu=Dog, Kubō=formal title of Shogun).
In 1695, there were so many dogs that Edo began to smell horribly.
- snip -
For the latter part of Tsunayoshi's reign, he was advised by Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu.[1] It was a golden era of classic Japanese art, known as the Genroku era.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. Nerima daikon 練馬大根 radish from Nerima .
- - - has been introduced by Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, 5th shogun, to help feed the growing population of Edo.

. The Temple Bell at Asakusa, Senso-Ji .
- - - was cast at the orders of the shogun Tsunayoshi.

. Nezu Jinja 根津神社 Nezu Shrine .
The shrine pavilions we see today were constructed under the orders of Tsunayoshi Tokugawa (1646-1709), the fifth Shogun, in 1706.

. Yuuten, Yūten 祐天 Yuten Shami .
Yuten came to be patronized by Keisho-in, the mother of the fifth Tokugawa shogun Tsunayoshi, who is said to have called on him in his hermit's hut on the outskirts of Edo.

. 柳澤吉保 Yanagizawa Yoshiyasu . [1658 -1714]
special retainer of Tsunayoshi.

- - - - - 生類憐みの令 shōrui awaremi no rei
This law encompasses all living things, humans at first.
Tsunayoshi cared about the people, he was the first to promote Terakoya schools. When the first foreigners came to Japan in the Meiji period, they were surprized at the high level of literacy in this "backward" country.
He also abolished the law of "kirisute gomen", where samurai could kill normal people without any problem.
He also introduced the idea of being gratetful to the ancestors, installing family graves for the first time, gosenzo daidai 御先祖代々. mostly at temple graveyards.
Until then, individuals had individual graves.


The Dog Shogun:
The Personality and Policies of Tokugawa Tsunayoshi

Author: Beatrice Bodart-Bailey

Tsunayoshi (1646–1709), the fifth Tokugawa shogun, is one of the most notorious figures in Japanese history. Viewed by many as a tyrant, his policies were deemed eccentric, extreme, and unorthodox. His Laws of Compassion, which made the maltreatment of dogs an offense punishable by death, earned him the nickname Dog Shogun, by which he is still popularly known today. However, Tsunayoshi’s rule coincides with the famed Genroku era, a period of unprecedented cultural growth and prosperity that Japan would not experience again until the mid-twentieth century. It was under Tsunayoshi that for the first time in Japanese history considerable numbers of ordinary townspeople were in a financial position to acquire an education and enjoy many of the amusements previously reserved for the ruling elite.

Based on a masterful re-examination of primary sources, this exciting new work by a senior scholar of the Tokugawa period maintains that Tsunayoshi’s notoriety stems largely from the work of samurai historians and officials who saw their privileges challenged by a ruler sympathetic to commoners. Beatrice Bodart-Bailey’s insightful analysis of Tsunayoshi’s background sheds new light on his personality and the policies associated with his shogunate. Tsunayoshi was the fourth son of Tokugawa Iemitsu (1604–1651) and left largely in the care of his mother, the daughter of a greengrocer. Under her influence, Bodart-Bailey argues, the future ruler rebelled against the values of his class. As evidence she cites the fact that, as shogun, Tsunayoshi not only decreed the registration of dogs, which were kept in large numbers by samurai and posed a threat to the populace, but also the registration of pregnant women and young children to prevent infanticide. He decreed, moreover, that officials take on the onerous tasks of finding homes for abandoned children and caring for sick travelers.

In the eyes of his detractors, Tsunayoshi’s interest in Confucian and Buddhist studies and his other intellectual pursuits were merely distractions for a dilettante. Bodart-Bailey counters that view by pointing out that one of Japan’s most important political philosophers, Ogyû Sorai, learned his craft under the fifth shogun. Sorai not only praised Tsunayoshi’s government, but his writings constitute the theoretical framework for many of the ruler’s controversial policies. Another salutary aspect of Tsunayoshi’s leadership that Bodart-Bailey brings to light is his role in preventing the famines and riots that would have undoubtedly taken place following the worst earthquake and tsunami as well as the most violent eruption of Mount Fuji in history—all of which occurred during the final years of Tsunayoshi's shogunate.

The Dog Shogun is a thoroughly revisionist work of Japanese political history that touches on many social, intellectual, and economic developments as well. As such it promises to become a standard text on late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth-century Japan.
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Tanuma Okitsugu


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Tanuma Okitsugu 田沼意次

(September 11, 1719 – August 25, 1788) - (1719 - 1788)

He is quite two-faced, either seen a corrupt official or as a saviour of a dismal economic situation . . .

- quote
a rōjū (senior counselor) of the Tokugawa shogunate who introduced monetary reform. He was also a daimyo, and ruled the Sagara han. He used the title Tonomo-no-kami.

His regime is often identified with rampant corruption and huge inflation of currency. In Tenmei 4 (1784), Okitsugu's son, the wakadoshiyori (junior counselor) Tanuma Okitomo, was assassinated inside Edo Castle. Okitomo was killed in front of his father as both were returning to their norimono after a meeting of the Counselors of State had broken up. Okitomo was killed by Sano Masakoto, a hatamoto. The involvement of senior figures in the bakufu was suspected, but only the assassin himself was punished. The result was that the Tanuma-initiated, liberalizing reforms within the bakufu and the relaxation of the strictures of sakoku were blocked.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


- quote -
Tanuma Okitsugu
Tairô (1767/7-1786/8/27)
Tanuma Okitsugu served as Tairô from 1767 to 1786.
Though Tanuma is generally remembered as a terribly corrupt official, John Whitney Hall emphasizes his contributions to the expansion of trade through expansion of government control over it, going so far as to suggest that his programs might have led Japan towards industrializing earlier.
Hall places the blame for Japan's economic and military weakness in the 19th century on the conservative policies of Tanuma's successor, Matsudaira Sadanobu.

As Tairô
Tanuma's time as Tairô is generally associated with political corruption, especially in the form of bribes, and with rampant inflation, and widespread moral decay.
In the 1770s,
Tanuma provided Tsushima han with sizable monetary loans and grants on a number of occasions, eventually putting into place an annual grant of 12,000 ryô which helped the domain accommodate for the decline in the Korea trade caused by continued debasement of silver coinage and expansion of domestic production of ginseng and other goods which drove down the demand for imports; the domain would continue to be paid this grant every year until 1862.

In 1785, he established clearinghouses in Hakodate, Edo, Osaka, and Shimonoseki which oversaw the collection and transportation of marine products to Nagasaki for export; as with similar steps taken in other industries where the shogunate established or reorganized za trade associations, this did not push private merchants out of the business, but rather made them into something akin to government contractors, placing the operations of that business under more direct government oversight, in the hopes of stemming fluctuations, smuggling, and other problems.

The 1783 eruption of Mt. Asama, combined with the nearly ten-year-long Great Tenmei Famine, were widely seen as symbols that the country was in need of serious change and a return to virtuous leadership. Tanuma was ousted from power in 1786, and replaced as Tairô by Matsudaira Sadanobu the following year.

He is buried at the Zen temple Mannen-zan Shôrin-ji in the Komagome neighborhood of Tokyo.
- source : samurai archives -


Tanuma Okitsugu, 1719-1788, forerunner of modern Japan
John Whitney Hall

This is a study of Tanuma Okitsugu, the most powerful political figure in Japan during the quarter century between 1760-1786. The book also provides a descriptive history of mid-eighteenth-century Japan.
- source : -


Tanuma looked at the pond in his garden and mumbled:
"It would be nice to have some fish swim here!"
And when he came back in the afternoon, the pond was full of the most beautiful koi goldfish - gifts (bribes) from people who depended on his support.

Tanuma got a large gift parcel with the inscription :
"A Doll from Kyoto". When he opened it, it was a living Maiko girl with splendid robed and . . .

. shimonya 四文屋 "Four Mon Shop" .
They begun sprouting up everywhere during the period of Tanuma.
Small shops in Edo where everything cost just one coin, the "Four Mon Coin".
That was the beginning of our 100 Yen Shop, the One Dollar Shop, the One Euro Shop.
Other cheap items in Edo were multiplied with four.


He supported the trade with foreign countries through the port of Nagasaki, especially
tawaramono 俵物 "goods packed in straw bags"
Nagasaki tawaramono yakusho 長崎俵物役所

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In the era of Edo, export goods from Nagasaki were such as dried sea cucumbers, dried abalones, dried fins of sharks that were all packed with straw rice bags, or tawara.
Foreign trade payment had been dealt with gold, silver and cotton at that time.
An outflow of these metals from Japan was so immense that a part of its trade payment was replaced with stuffs packed with straw rice bags called tawaramono.
The club was established to gather tawaramono for the convenience of those who were concerned in the first year of Enkyo (1744), but it often moved until being settled at this site in the 6th year of Anei (1777).
Later it was run exclusively by the shogunate but it didn't work well.
The club remained until the end of the shogunate.
Osaka, 2-15, 2-chome, Kitahama, Chuo-ku
- source : -

- tawaramono sanpin 俵物三品: The three best were
iri namako 煎海鼠(いりなまこ/いりこ)- dried sea cucumbers
hoshi awabi 乾鮑(干鮑(ほしあわび))- dried abalones
fukahire 鱶鰭(ふかひれ)- dried sharks fins

- quote -
Sino-Japanese Interaction via Chinese Junks in the Edo Period
Matsuura Akira
In Japan as well, increased production of these three products — dried sea cucumber, dried abalone, and shark’s fin, collectively called tawaramono or hyōmotsu (俵物 goods in straw bags) — was actively promoted. At the beginning of the Guangxu years (1875–1908), He Ruzhang, appointed as plenipotentiary to Japan, wrote in his Shidong zaji (Miscellany of an Envoy to Japan),
“Many Chinese merchants take raw cotton and white sugar, and return with various marine products such as sea cucumbers and dried abalone.”
He Ruzhang’s note clearly underscores the importance of these products in China even after the Edo era . . .
- Read the full article PDF file, 14 pages :
- source : Matsuura Akira -

Through the tawawamono and payment in 銅 bronze instead of gold he managed to deal with the huge trade deficit of his times.
He founded the "Bronze Bank" dooza 銅座 in Osaka to deal with trade payments.

Since silver was rare in Japan and not enough to print silver coins for trade, he started the import of silver from China and then Holland. This silver also helped to grease the trade within Japan.
Gold was used as payment in Edo (Eastern Japan, whith more gold mines) whereas silver was used as payment in Osaka (Western Japan, with more silver mines). And the poor people used the bronze coins to make their payments.

- - - - - Monetary reform of 1772
nanryoonishugin なんりょうにしゅぎん 南鐐二朱銀 Nanryo Nishu Gin
silver coins introduced by Tanuma

nishububan 貮朱之歩判
nishuban 貮朱判
meiwa nanryoonishugin 明和南鐐二朱銀

- quote -
In the latter half of the 18th century, the demand for small-denomination currency increased due to expanded production of commercial crops in local villages. The Tokugawa Shogunate government issued silver coins (Meiwa Nanryo Nishu-gin <2-shu-gin>) with denominations based on gold coin units. Thus, the silver coins eventually became supplementary currencies of gold coins.
Toward the end of the Edo period, recoinages (Bunsei and Tenpo recoinages) were often carried out to finance the budget deficits of the Shogunate government, which led to chronic inflation. After the re-opening of international trade at the end of the Edo period, Japan experienced a huge outflow of gold coins overseas, and the Man’en recoinage, which was carried out to stop this outflow, caused further inflation, resulting in confusion of the nation’s monetary system toward the Meiji Restoration.
- source : BOJ Currency Museum -

. Coins (zeni, kozeni (銭、小銭) and Japanese money .

. kabunakama, kabu nakama 株仲間 merchant guild, merchant coalition
za 座 trade guilds, industrial guilds, artisan guilds .

Tanuma encouraged the kabunakama system in Edo.
Roju Tanuma 老中 田沼意次 - 株仲間の奨励


. satoo 砂糖 Sato - History of Japanese sugar .
encouraged the trade of white European sugar via the merchants of Nagasaki.
He also introduced the plant satokibi , first grown at his request at a Nichiren temple, the Ikegami Honmon-Ji 池上本門寺 in the South of Edo. From there its growth spread to other suitable areas of Japan.

. koorai ninjin 高麗人参 Panax ginseng .
around 1760 encouraged their planting in Japan. He offered positions as "ministers" (bakushin 幕臣) to the scholars of kanpo 漢方 Chinese medicine plants.
Japanese ginseng 東洋参 (Panax japonicus)

With his great interest in these things, Tanuma was most probably influenced by the great

. Hiraga Gennai 平賀源内  (1728 - 80) .


A 狂歌 Kyoka parody poem about Tanuma

白河の 清き流れに住みかねて もとの田沼の にごり恋しき
Shirakawa no kiyoki nagare ni sumikanete moto no tanuma no nigori koishiki

River Shirakawa is shorthand for Matsudaira Sadanobu.
tanuma, lit. fields and swamps.
古河の清き流れに住みかねて もとの田沼ぞ今は恋しき

We can't get used to the clean flow of Shirakawa -
We rather long for the dirty puddles of fields and swamps.

- quote -
Matsudaira Sadanobu 松平定信 (1759 - 1829)
Japanese daimyo of the mid-Edo period, famous for his financial reforms which saved the Shirakawa Domain, and the similar reforms he undertook during his tenure as chief senior councilor (rōjū shuza; 老中首座) of the Tokugawa Shogunate, from 1787 to 1793.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


増補版 通史 田沼意次 - 2013

The grave of the Tanuma family has been destroyed by the Great Tohoku Earthquake in 2011.

- reference : TBS - Edo no Susume -


. senryuu, senryū 川柳 Senryu in Edo .

- - - - - The most famous senryu in the times of Tanuma :

yakunin no ko wa niginigi o yoku oboe

the son of an official
learns quite easily
to grab anything

Taking bribes became the rule of the day in the time of Tanuma.

yakunin no honeppoi no wa choki ni nose

a serious official
is best invited
to take a choki boat trip

. choki 猪牙 / chokibune 猪牙舟 water taxi, river taxi .
to the Yoshiware pleasure quarters.
Once an official has learned to enjoy (and spent his money) at the pleasure quarters, he can be kept with more bribes to indulge more and so on . . .


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Toyama Kagemoto


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Tooyama 遠山景元 Toyama Saemon no Jo Kagemoto
(1793 – 1855)
生誕 寛政5年8月23日(1793年9月27日)
死没 安政2年2月29日(1855年4月15日)
(September 27, 1793 – April 15, 1855)

Tōyama Kagemoto (遠山景元) Kinshiro 金四郎
a hatamoto and an official of the Tokugawa Shogunate during the Edo Period of Japanese history. His ancestry was of the Minamoto clan of Mino Province. His father, Kagemichi 遠山景晋, was the magistrate of Nagasaki.
Kagemoto held the posts of Finance Magistrate, North Magistrate, and subsequently the South Magistrate of Edo. (The magistrates of Edo acted as chiefs of the police and fire departments and as judges in criminal and civil matters.)

(Edo machibugyoo, machi bugyoo 町奉行 magistrate of Edo)

As North Magistrate, his opposition to South Magistrate Torii Yōzō and Rōjū Mizuno Tadakuni won him popularity. In 1843, he was ousted from his position as North Magistrate through the machinations of Torii, and although nominally appointed Ōmetsuke, was out of power. Two years later, when Mizuno ousted Torii, Tōyama received an appointment as South Magistrate, a post once held by Ōoka Tadasuke.

Tōyama's rose to the Lower Junior Fifth rank with the name Tōyama Saemon no Jō Saemonnojo.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

His father had adopted another boy of the family for his heir, so Kinshiro in his youth had no prospects for a good future and spent a lot of time in the pleasure quarters of Edo.
During that time he might have acquired some tatoo like the men of the city used to favor.
Only when the family heir died at an early age Kagemoto became the head of the family and started his career as a governor of Edo.

When his superior Mizuno tried to relocate the three Kabuki theaters to a far-away location, Toyama intervened on behalf of the people, since Kabuki was one of their few leisure activities at that time in Edo.

His real fame came later, when the Kabuki world was paying him back for his benevolence with a play in the Meiji area and the kodan story tellers took up the subject.
And with the advent of TV series and movies, he became a real star in Japan.

His grave at temple Honmyo-Ji in Tokyo
遠山金四郎景元の墓 - (東京都豊島区巣鴨五丁目・本妙寺)

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. 江戸の名奉行 Famous Bugyo Magistrates from Edo .


Three leisure acitivites in Edo
Sumo, Kabuki and the Pleasure quarters - having a drink together

遠山金四郎 - 誰も知らなかった桜吹雪


- source : おおえど.com

. Edo Sanza 江戸三座
the three famous Kabuki theaters of Edo .

with a special permission from the city government (町奉行 machi bugyoo).

堺町・葺屋町 Sakai Machi
木挽町 Kobiki choo
猿若町 Saruwaka choo. later renamed Nakamura-za


CLICK for more photos of the actors !

Tōyama no Kin-san (遠山の金さん)
is a popular character based on the historical Tōyama Kagemoto, a samurai and official of the Tokugawa Shogunate during the Edo Period of Japanese history. In kabuki and kōdan, he was celebrated under his childhood name, Kinshirō, shortened to Kin-san. He was said to have left home as a young man, and lived among the commoners, even having a tattoo of flowering sakura trees on his shoulder. This story developed into a legend of helping the common people.

The novelist Tatsurō Jinde (陣出達郎) wrote a series of books about Kin-san. Noted actor Chiezō Kataoka starred in a series of eight Toei jidaigeki films about him. Several Japanese television networks have aired series based on the character. These variously portrayed him pretending to be a petty hood or a yojimbo samurai while solving crimes as the chief of police.

People famous for having portrayed Kin-san on television include kabuki stars Nakamura Umenosuke IV and Ichikawa Danshirō, singers Yukio Hashi and Teruhiko Saigō, and actors Ryōtarō Sugi, Hideki Takahashi, Hiroki Matsukata, and Kōtarō Satomi.
Saigō and Satomi portrayed Kin-san in the series Edo o Kiru.
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Edo o Kiru 江戸を斬る Slashing Edo

a popular jidaigeki on Japan's Tokyo Broadcasting System.
During the decades from its September 24, 1973 premiere until the July 25, 1994 finale, 214 episodes aired. It lasted through eight series, with several casts and settings. It ran on Monday evenings in the 8:00 – 8:54 prime time slot, sponsored by National, and remains popular in reruns.

The first series featured popular actor Takewaki Muga, a co-star in the network's program Ōoka Echizen, which alternated with Edo o Kiru in the same time slot. He played Hoshina Masayuki, half-brother of shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu, masquerading as Azusa Ukon in a good-over-evil drama set in Edo. Also on the cast was Matsuzaka Keiko, who continued in the next several versions of the show.

Versions two through six starred the popular actor/singer Saigo Teruhiko in the role of Toyama Kagemoto, or Tōyama no Kin-san, a samurai who lived among the commoners, to the point of having a huge sakura tattoo drawn on his shoulder, but later became chief administrator of Edo. In this version of the Kin-san story (which has been the subject of several other series), Kinshiro lived in the house of the woman who had been his nursemaid (played by Masumi Harukawa, later O-Sai of Abarenbo Shogun), the proprietor of a fish-dealer. O-Yuki (Keiko Matsuzaka), pretending to be her daughter, is actually a daughter of Tokugawa Nariaki, daimyo of the Mito domain, and eventually marries Kin-san.
Wearing a purple cloth over her head and face, and wielding a sword in the Yagyū Shinkage-ryū manner, she works outside the law to bring justice to the wicked. At her right hand is an employee at the shop, Jirokichi (kabuki actor Matsuyama Eitaro, 1942–1991). The former Robin Hood-style thief Nezumi Kozō, he became an undercover agent for the Kin-san/O-Yuki team.
Morishige Hisaya (1913– ) played Nariaki in special guest appearances.

A major cast change brought veteran jidaigeki actor Kōtarō Satomi to the lead role, again as Kin-san, for the seventh and eighth series.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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Tokugawa Iemitsu

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Tokugawa Iemitsu 徳川家光 Third Shogun
sometimes spelled Iyemitsu, Iyémitsŭ,

(August 12, 1604 – June 8, 1651)
and in office 1623 – 1651

- quote
the third shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty. He was the eldest son of Tokugawa Hidetada, and the grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Iemitsu ruled from 1623 to 1651.
... his childhood name was Takechiyo (竹千代).
his younger brother was Tokugawa Tadanaga - However, Ieyasu made it clear that Iemitsu would be next in line as shogun after Hidetada.
In 1623, when Iemitsu was nineteen, Hidetada abdicated the post of shogun in his favor. Hidetada continued to rule as Ōgosho (retired Shogun), but Iemitsu nevertheless assumed a role as formal head of the bakufu government.
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Utsunomiya Tsuritenjo Jiken 宇都宮 釣天井事件 The Ceiling at Utsunomiya

source :
Now even the subject of a senbei rice cracker.

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Near Utsunomiya, August 30, 1886
I recall a little story of Utsunomiya, connected with my associations of Nikko, which I shall try to tell you; though, at the very start, I find a difficulty in my having heard it told in several different and contradictory ways—and I can only travel one at a time. As I shall tell it, it represents a legend believed at least in the theater, which, as we know, everywhere makes a kind of history.

The story is about the shogun Iyémitsŭ, whose temple, you know, is at Nikko, and who was near missing the honor of being divinized there later, owing to a plot arranged by his enemies, the scene of which was this little town of Utsunomiya. At that time he was but a boy, the heir-apparent, and was on his way to Nikko, as was his official duty, to worship at the tomb of his grandfather Iyéyasŭ, lately deceased. In this story Iyémitsŭ is not in the legitimate line of descent, but is made the heir by the decision of the great Iyéyasŭ.

His father, Hidetada, was shogun, as you know, having succeeded Iyéyasŭ, during the latter's lifetime,—the old man remaining in reality the master, though absolved from external responsibilities. Now, Hidetada's wife was of the family of Nobunaga, on her mother's side—and bore him a son, who was named during his childhood Kuni Matsu. Another son, whose boy name was Take Chiyo, was the son of Kasuga No Tsubone, a remarkable woman. Each son had tutors, people of importance, and around each boy gathered a number of ambitious interests, all the fiercer that they were dissembled and depended for success upon the choice of either heir as shogun, to succeed father and grandfather. The claim of the other son was favored by the father and more generally accepted; but the son of Kasuga was superior in looks, manners, and intelligence, and his mother hoped to influence in his favor old Iyéyasŭ, the grandfather.

Iyéyasŭ was then living in retirement at Sunpu, that is now called Shidzuoka, which is on the road called the Tokaido.

Kasuga took advantage of a pilgrimage to the shrines of Ise to stop on her road, and naturally offer homage to the head of the family, the grandfather of her son. Besides the power of her own personality, she was able to place before Iyéyasŭ very strong arguments for choosing as the heir of the line a youth as promising as her Take Chiyo.

Iyéyasŭ advised her to continue her pilgrimage, and not to go out of her woman's business, which could not be that of interfering with questions of state; and she obeyed. But Iyéyasŭ revolved the entire question in his mind, and decided that there was danger in a delay that allowed both parties to grow stronger in antagonism. So that he came at once to Yedo, which is now Tokio, and visited Hidetada, asking to see both the boys together. They came in along with their father and his wife, and took their accustomed places. Now these were on the higher floor, raised by a few inches from the floor on which kneels the visitor of lower degree, in the presence of his superior: a line of black lacquer edges the division. Thereupon Iyéyasŭ taking the boy Take Chiyo by the hand, made him sit by him, and alongside of his father, and ordered the other son, Kuni Matsu, to sit below the line, and said:
"The State will come to harm if the boys are allowed to grow up in the idea of equal rank.
Therefore, Take Chiyo shall be shogun, and Kuni Matsu a daimio
This decision gave to the line of the Tokugawa a brilliant and powerful continuity, for Take Chiyo, under his manhood name of Iyémitsŭ, was as an Augustus to the Cæsar Iyéyasŭ. And, indeed, Iyéyasŭ had certainly made sufficient inquiries to warrant his decision. If he consulted the abbot Tenkai, of Nikko, who was a preceptor of the boy, he must have heard favorably of him. For, according to the judgment of Tenkai, as I find it quoted elsewhere, "Iyémitsŭ was very shrewd and of great foresight," and in his presence the great abbot felt, he said, "as if thorns were pricking his back."

Not but that he was also fond of luxury and splendor; and one glimpse of him as a youth shows a quarrel with a tutor who found him dressing himself, or being dressed, for "No" performances, or "private theatricals," and who proceeded thereupon to throw away the double mirrors,—in which the youth followed his hair-dresser's arrangements,—with the usual, classical rebuke, condemning such arrangements as unworthy of a ruler of Japan.

There are many stories of Iyémitsŭ more or less to his advantage—and a little anecdote shows a young man of quick temper, as well as one who insisted upon proper attendance.

Iyémitsŭ had been hawking in a strong wind, and with no success. Tired and hungry, he went with some lord-in-waiting to a neighboring temple, where lunch was prepared for them by his cook,—a man of rank. Iyémitsŭ, while taking his soup in a hurry, crushed a little stone between his teeth; whereupon he immediately insisted upon the cook's committing suicide. The cook being a gentleman, a man of affairs, not a mere artist like poor Vatel, hesitated, and then said:
"No soup made by me ever had stones or pebbles in it; otherwise I should gladly kill myself: you gentlemen have begun dinner at once without washing hands or changing dress, and some pebble has dropped into the soup from your hair or clothes. If after having washed your hands and changed your dress, you find any stones in the soup, I shall kill myself."
Whereupon Iyémitsŭ did as was suggested by the cook, repented of his own severity, and increased the cook's pay. But the tutor and guardians of Iyémitsŭ watched over him carefully, and the story I had begun to tell shows that they had no sinecure.

The tutors and guardians of the brother, whom Iyéyasŭ had decided to put aside in favor of Iyémitsŭ, were naturally deeply aggrieved and sought for chances to regain their ward's future power and their own.

As my story began, Iyémitsŭ, representing the hereditary shogunate, was called upon to travel to Nikko and worship officially at his grandfather's tomb. On his way it was natural that he should rest as we did, at Utsunomiya, and in the castle of his vassal, Honda, who was one of the tutors of his brother. This was the son  of the great Honda Masanobu, of whom I spoke above as a champion of Iyéyasŭ.

Here was an opportunity; and a scheme of getting rid of the young shogun was devised by his enemies that seemed to them sufficiently obscure to shield them in case of success or failure, at least for a time. This was, to have a movable ceiling made to the bath-room weighted in such a way as to fall upon any one in the bath and crush him. Whether it was to be lifted again, and leave him drowned in his bath, or to remain as an accident from faulty construction, I do not know.

To build this machine, ten carpenters were set to work within the castle and kept jealously secluded,—even when the work was done, for the young shogun delayed his coming. The confinement fretted the men, among whom was a young lover, anxious to get back to his sweetheart, and not to be satisfied with the good food and drink provided to appease him. He told of his longings to the gatekeeper, whose duty it was to keep him imprisoned, bribed him with his own handsome pay and promise of a punctual return, and at last managed to get out and be happy for a few moments. The girl of his love was inquisitive, but reassured by explanation that the work was done, and that he should soon be out again; yet not before the shogun should have come and gone on his way to Nikko. And so he returned to the gatekeeper at the time appointed. Meanwhile, during that very night, the officers of the castle had gone their rounds and found one man absent. In the morning the roll-call was full. This was reported to the lord of the castle, who decided that if he could not know who it was that had been absent it was wise to silence them all. Therefore, each was called to be paid and dismissed, and, as he stepped out, was beheaded. The gatekeeper, getting wind of what was happening and  fearing punishment, ran away, and being asked by the girl about her lover, told her what he knew and that he believed all the carpenters to have been killed.

Since her lover was dead, she determined to die also, having been the cause of his death and of the death of his companions. She wrote out all this, together with what her lover had told her of his belief and suspicions, and left the letter for her father and mother, who received it along with the tidings of her suicide. The father, in an agony of distress and fear, for there was danger to the whole family from every side, made up his mind to stop the shogun at all hazards, and in the depth of the night made his way to Ishibashi, where one of the princes had preceded Iyémitsŭ, who was to pass the night still further back on the road.

Here there was difficulty about getting a private interview with so great a man as this prince, whose name you will remember as being the title of the former owner of our friend's house in Nikko: Ii, Kammon no Kami.

The letter was shown to Ii, who despatched two messengers, gentlemen of his own, one back to Yedo, to see to the safety of the castle there; the other one to Iyémitsŭ, but by a circuitous route, so that he might appear to have come the other way. The letter was to the effect that the young shogun's father was very ill and desired his son's immediate return. By the time that Iyémitsŭ could get into his litter, Ii had arrived and shown him the girl's letter. Then the occupants of the litters were changed, Matsudaira taking Iyémitsŭ's norimono and Iyémitsŭ Matsudaira's. This, of course, was to give another chance of escape in case of sudden attack by a larger force, for they were now in enemy's country and did not know what traps might be laid for them. The bearers of the palanquin pressed through the night, so that, leaving at midnight, they arrived at Yedo the following  evening; but the strain had been so great that they could go no further.

There was still the fear of attack, and among the retinue one very strong man, Matsudaira Ishikawa, carried the litter of the prince himself. But the gates were closed, and the guards refused to recognize the unknown litter as that of the shogun; nor would they, fearing treachery, open when told that Iyémitsŭ had returned. Delays ensued, but at last admission was obtained for Iyémitsŭ through a wicket gate—and he was safe. Later, after cautious delays, the guilty were punished, and I hope the family of the carpenter's love escaped. When I first read the story, years ago, the version was different, and there was some arrangement of it, more romantic—with some circumstances through which the young carpenter and his sweetheart escaped, and alone the father, innocent of harm, committed suicide.

- - - snip

That lady in the story just given you, where she is the mother of Iyémitsŭ and the concubine of his father, the shogun, was a very different person.

Little Iyémitsŭ was the legitimate son; moreover, the one who by date of birth was the probable heir, notwithstanding the preference shown by his father and his mother, Sogenin, for his younger brother. So that the succession was decided abruptly by the stern head of the family, Iyéyasŭ.

Great attention was paid by the grandfather, the great Iyéyasŭ, to the education of this grandson. As a Japanese friend remarked, he believed that the important place in the generation was that of the third man. So that three distinguished noblemen were appointed his governors: Sakai, to teach benevolence; Doi, to teach wisdom; Awoyama, to teach valor.
Besides these great professors for the future, the little boy needed an immediate training by a governess good in every way. Kasuga, a married woman, the daughter of a well-known warrior of imperial descent who had lost his life in some conspiracy of the previous generation, was chosen by [Pg 213] the government for the position. This was, perhaps, as great an honor as could be offered to any lady. Besides, there was an opportunity to clear the memory of her father. And she begged her husband to divorce her that she might be free to give all her life to this task. So devoted was she that the boy being at one time at the point of death, she offered herself to the gods for his recovery, vowing never to take any remedy. In her last illness she refused all medicine, and even when Iyémitsŭ—now ruler—begged her to take a commended draught from his hand, she merely, out of politeness, allowed it to moisten her lips, saying that her work was done, that she was ready to die, and that her life had long ago been offered for the master. Nor would she allow the master to indulge her with regard to her own son. He was in exile, deservedly, and the shogun asked her permission to pardon him, in the belief of possible amendment. She refused, bidding Iyémitsŭ to remember his lesson: that the law of the country was above all things, and that she had never expected such words from him. Moreover, that had he revoked the law for her, she could not die in peace.
There is a Spartan politeness in all this, for which I think the stories worth saving to you.
- source :


At Imamiya shrine 今宮神社 , you can get unique charms or talismans. One of them is the
tamanokoshi (marry into the purple) charm 玉の輿お守り.
It is a vivid navy blue and printed with the designs of Kyoto vegetables.

This charm is derived from an old story:

Tokugawa Iemitsu (1604-51), the 3rd Edo shogun, fell in love with a beautiful girl named Otama, who was born in Kyoto’s Nishijin weaving district as the daughter of a greengrocer. Iemitsu took Otama as a concubine and she bore him a son, who later became the 5th Edo shogun, Tokugawa Ietsuna.
In 1651, when Iemitsu died, Otama became a Buddhist nun under the name Keishoin. She had kept Nishijin in mind even after achieving a high status, and she seems to have exerted herself to build a temple, revive the Yasurai Matsuri (which had been suspended), and support Nishijin after she heard of the ruin of Imamiya Shrine.
The guardian gods of Nishijin also protect Imamiya Shrine, so people wished for the prosperity of the Nishijin area. Local residents say that the word “tamanokoshi” can be traced back to Otama’s story, and anyone who wants to become a “Cinderella”, or simply be happy, can visit this shrine to buy this charm.
source :


. Sanpooji 三寶寺 / 三宝寺 Sanpo-Ji - Nerima .

The third Shogun, 将軍家光 Tokugawa Iemitsu, often passed here during his falcon hunting and a special gate was constructed later for him to go through, 御成門 Onari-Mon, now the oldest existing building in the temple complex.


reimuzoo 霊夢像 Reimuzo, Oracle Dream Image
When Iemitsu was ill later in his life, he had dreams of Ieyasu.
He orderd the painter Kano Tan'yū to create an image after his dream vision.
37 of these dreams are well documented. “dream” portraits.

. . . CLICK here for more Photos !

Visions of the Dead: Kano Tan'yū's Paintings of Tokugawa Iemitsu's Dreams
Karen M. Gerhart / Monumenta Nipponica 2004
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- Reference - Japanese -
- Reference - English -

. Kasuga no Tsubone 春日局 Lady Kasuga . - (1597 - 1643)


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Tomita Keisen


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Tomita Keisen 富田渓仙 

born in Hakata (Fukuota). His given name was Singoro. He studied the Shijo style of painting in Kyoto with Tsuji Kakō (1871-1931). He also studied Heian Buddhist painting and nanga (traditional Japanese painting). He exhibited in the official Bunten, Teiten and Inten exhibitions. Exhibited paintings with Saiko Nihon Bijutsuin (Reorganized Japan Fine Art Academy) in 1915, and became a member in 1916. He is credited with creating a new style of kacho-ga and was one of the foremost painters of his generation.
- source :

This print by Tomita Keisen (1879-1936) depicts the priest Mongaku atoning for his sins by standing under Nachi waterfall in winter. About to die, he is rescued by the god Fudo Myo-o (Buddhist Diety of Fire.)

The Story of the Priest Mongaku and the God Fudo
The priest Mongaku is referred to in Chikamatsu's 1714 bunraku play Fair Ladies at a Game of Poem Cards (Kaoyo Utagaruta). The character Takeguchi, who wishes to atone for his sins, invokes the story of Mongaku as follows:

"Well, let me follow the example of Mongaku, who took to the priesthood in consequence of the great love he bore a lady and in time was enabled to lead all his relations to the Pure Land. Life is after all but a dream; reputation and infamy illusions; hatred and compassion but reflections quivering upon the water. Let me hope that my mistake in love will prove to be but a first step on the path of spiritual enlightenment."

The story of the priest Mongaku is told in the unattributed play Nachi-no-Take Chikai no Mongaku, “The Priest Mongaku at the Waterall of Nachi".

Endo Morito, the son of a minor courtier became infatuated with the beautiful Kesa Gozen, the faithful young wife of Watanabe Wataru, a palace guard. She rejected his advances but he was so persistent that she pretended to agree to his proposal on the condition that he first kill her husband.

Kesa concocted a plan where Morito was to steal into Wataru’s room by night. That night, Kesa cut off her long hair and lay down in the darkness in her husband’s bed. At midnight Morito arrived and felt in the darkness until he found the sleeping figure. He immediately cut the head off and ran off. He was horrified to find that he had cut off the head of Kesa Gozen.

He renounced the world and became a monk. For three years he attempted to atone for his crime by the harshest austerities, standing under the icy Nachi waterfall in winter. He was frozen and about to expire, but was saved by Fudo Myo-o (Buddhist Diety of Fire, depicted with a sword in one hand and a rope in the other) and his Acolytes, Kongara and Seitaka.
- source :

. Mongaku 文覚 Priest Mongaku .


Fudo appears in the dream of a young boy.
Partially restored print.

- source : hayato Tokugawa, facebook

. Fudō Myō-ō 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O
- Acala Vidyârâja - Vidyaraja .


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Tachibana Hokushi 立花北枝 (1665-1718) Haiku poet
Hokushi Ki 北枝忌 - Chooshi Ki 趙子忌

Tachibana no Yukihira 橘行平 (around 997) - regent of 因幡国 Inaba

Tachihara Inuki Tachihara 立原位貫  (1951 - ) - woodblock artist
- reference on facebook -

Tada Chimako 多田智満子 (1930-2003) haiku poet

Tada Kasuke 多田加助 - (? - 1687)
and the farmers 貞享騒動 Jōkyō Uprising, Matsumoto, Nagano

Tada Toshiko 多田敏子 Potter from Ishikawa

Tagai Kansho (Tagai Kanshoo 互井観章) "Mr Happiness" / ハピネス観章
the rapping monk of temple Kyo-O-Ji 経王寺, Tokyo

Tagami Kikusha 田上菊舎 (1753-1826)
Tagami no Ama 田上尼(たがみのあま)The Nun Tagami

TAGORE, Rabindranath Tagore (1861-August 7, 1941) Poet, India

Taichoo, Taichō 泰澄上人 Saint Taicho Shonin / Taicho-Daishi 泰澄大師 (682 - 767)
Etsu no Daitoku 越の大徳 - Great Man of Virtue from Etsu
Unpen Shoonin 雲遍上人 Saint Unpen Shonin
Shiramine Daisoojo 天狗 白峰大僧正 Tengu Shiramine Daisojo

Taira no Masakado 平将門 / 平將門 - (? – 940)
- his son, Taira no Yoshikado 平良門
- his brother, Taira no Masayori 平将頼 (? - 940)

Taira no Kiyomori 平清盛 - (1118 - 1181) Heike Monogatari

Taisen Deshimaru Zen teacher in France

Taisui 岱水 Basho disciple from Fukagawa

Takada Tooshiroo 高田藤四郎 Takada Toshiro - (1706 - ?) and Fujizuka 富士塚

. Takadaya Kahei 高田屋嘉兵衛 . (1769 - 1827) Merchant from Awajishima 淡路島, Shikoku

 Takaha Shugyo 鷹羽狩行 Takaha Shugyoo (1930, October 5 - )

Takahama Kyoshi 高浜虚子(1874 - 1959)

Takahashi Awajijo 高橋淡路女 (1890 - 1955)

Takahashi Dosui 高橋怒誰 . (? - 1743)

Takahashi Katsuhiko Takahashi 高橋克彦 (1947 - ) - Novelist from Iwate

Takahashi Mutsuo 高橋睦郎 (1937 - ) - Poet

Takahashi Shootei, Takahashi Shōtei 高橋松亭  Takahashi Shotei - prints
and Watanabe Shōzaburo
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Takahata Shi-in 高畑市隠 (? - 1722) Basho friend from Iga, Ueno

Takakuwa Rankoo 高桑闌更 Takakuwa Ranko (1727 - 1799) or (1726-1798) and
- Bashoo doo 芭蕉堂 Basho Do Hall - Higashiyama, Kyoto

高松喜六 Takamatsu Kiroku (? - 1713) / 高松喜兵衛
- and 内藤新宿 Naito Shinjuku, Tokyo

Takamatsu Toshitsugu 高松寿嗣 Master of Martial Arts

Takano Chooei, Takano Chōei 高野長英 Takano Choei- (1804 - 1850) . doctor

Takano Sujuu 高野素十 Takano Suju (1893 - 1976)
Haiku poet. Sujuu Ki 素十忌

Takase Torakichi known as 'Takase Kozan'  - (1869-1934) - craftsman, artist

TAKASHI, Matsumoto Takashi 松本たかし 5 January 1906 – 11 May 1956) Haiku Poet
Takashi Ki たかし忌 - "Peony Day", Botan Ki 牡丹忌

TAKASHI, Nagatsuka Takashi 長塚節 February 8. 1879年4月3日 - 1915年2月8日)
Poet. Takashi Ki 節忌

Takahashi Shoozan 高橋松山 Takahashi Shozan (1932 - ) painter of Otsu-E 大津絵

Takasugi Shinsaku 高杉晋作- (1839 – 1867) Bakumatsu samurai

Takaya Soshu 高屋窓秋 Takaya Sooshuu (1910-1999)

Takayama Denemon (Biji) 高山伝右衛門 麋塒 Haiku poet
Takayama Biji ( 1649-1718) 高山繁文 Takayama Shigefumi

Takebe Socho 建部巣兆 Takebe Soochoo (1761-1814)

Takeo Takei Takeo 武井武雄 (1894 - 1983) Painter (wikipedia)
- The Takeo Takei Lab of Ornithology -

Takehisa Yumeji 竹久夢二 Painter (1884 - 1934)

Takeshita Shizunojo 竹下しづの女 Haiku poetess (1887 - 1951)

Takeuchi Seihō, Seihoo 竹内栖鳳 Takeuchi Seiho (1864 -1942)

Takiguchi Susumu 滝口進 World Haiku Club, World Haiku Review

TAKIJI, Kobayashi Takiji 小林 多喜二
October 13, 1903–February 20, 1933. - Takiji Ki 多喜二忌

Takita Sakae 滝田栄 actor and woodcarver

Takuan Soho 沢庵 宗彭 (1573–1645) and pickled radishes

Takuboku, Ishikawa Takuboku 石川 啄木
February 20, 1886–April 13, 1912. Poet. Takuboku Ki 啄木忌

Tamamo no Mae 玉藻前 - Tamamo Gozen 玉藻御前
courtesan under the Emperor Konoe (1142 – 1155) changed into a legendary fox

Tan Taigi 炭太祇 (1709 -1771)
Haiku poet. Taigi Ki 太祗忌 - Fuya An Ki 不夜庵忌

Tanaka Iichiro 田中偉一郎 Drop-eyed Daruma. Artwork

Tanaka Hisashige 田中久重- (1799 - 1881) Inventor
からくり儀右衛門 Kakakuri Giemon and the Toshiba company

Tanchu Terayama and Zen Calligraphy: Hitsuzendo

Tani Bokuin, Boku-In 谷木因 (1646 - 1725) from Ogaki Haiku poet

TANIZAKI, Jun'ichirō Tanizaki 谷崎 潤一郎 (24 July 1886 — 30 July 1965)
Tanizaki Ki 谷崎忌 - Junichiroo Ki 潤一郎忌

Taneda Santoka (1882-1940)  Santooka and Sake

Tani Bunchoo 谷文晁 Tani Buncho (1763 - 1841) and Shirakawa Daruma

Tanuma Okitsugu 田沼意次 (1719, Edo, Japan – 1788) - Edo politician

Tanshoo 但唱 Mokujiki Tansho 木喰但唱 (? - 1641)
and his disciple Mokujiki Kansho 閑唱上人

Taruya Yozaemon 樽屋藤左衛門 / 樽屋与左衛門
and the 枡座 Masu-Za office in Edo

TATSUJI, Miyoshi Tatsuji 三好達治 - 23 August 1900 – 5 April 1964)
poet, literary critic, and literary editor - Tatsuki Ki 達治忌 - Miyoshi Ki 三好忌

Tatsu no Ko Taro 龍の子太郎 "Dragon Boy" - Legendary person
- Koizumi Kotaro 小泉小太郎 / Izumi Kotaro 泉小太郎 (Izumi no ko, Taro)

TATSUO, Hori Tatsuo 堀 辰雄 - 28 December 1904 – 28 May 1953.
writer. Tatsuo Ki 辰雄忌

Tawara Toota Hidesato 俵藤太秀郷 Tawara Tota Heian period


. Tengu 天狗 superhuman "heavenly dog" - "celestial dog" .

Tenjiku Tokubei 天竺徳兵衛 - (1612 - c. 1692) adventurer

Tenyuu Hoo-in 別当天佑法院 Betto Tenyu Ho-In priest at Mount Haguro

Tezuka Osamu 手塚治虫 (1928 - 1989) Manga


Tierney, Patrick Lennox Tierney - (1914 - ) Art and Garden Design


TOBA SOJO, Kakuyuu 覚猷 Kakuyu - 天喜元年(1053年) - (1140年10月27日)
Tendai Priest. Toba Soojoo KI 鳥羽僧正忌 - Kakuyuu Ki 覚猷忌

Tokiwa Gozen 常磐御前 Lady Tokiwa - Mother ofYoshitsune (1123 - ?1180)

Tokiwazu Moji Tayuu 常磐津 文字太夫 Tokiwazu Mojitayu - (1709 - 1781)
and the Joruri Tokiwazu-bushi 常磐津節

Tokugawa Iemitsu 徳川家光 (1604 – 1651) - Third Shogun

Tokugawa Ieyasu 徳川家康 (1543 - 1616) Ieyasu Ki 家康忌 Memorial Day

. Tokugawa Muneharu 徳川宗春 . - (1696 - 1764) - Nagoya

Tokugawa Tsunayoshi 徳川綱吉 - (1646 - 1709) Fifth Shogun

Tokugawa Yoshimune 徳川吉宗将軍 - (1684 - 1751) - 8th Shogun

. Tokugawa Yoshinobu 徳川慶喜 . - (1873 - 1913) The Last Shogun

Tokuitsu (Toku-Ichi) 得一 徳溢 - Priest Tokuitsu and Fukushima, Tohoku

. Tomita Keisen 富田渓仙  . - Painter. (1879-1936)

Tomiyasu Fusei (Fuusei) - Haiku poet. (1885 - 1979)

Tomoe Gozen 巴御前 (1157?–1247)
and Minamoto no Yoshinaka.

Toodoo Shinshichiroo 藤堂新七郎 Todo Shinshichiro
Sengin 蝉吟 (1642 - 1666) "Cicada poet"

. Too Enmei 陶淵明 To Enmei .
Chinese Poet Tao Yuanming 365 - 427

TOOKOKU, Kitamura Tokoku 北村透谷 (29 December 1868 – 16 May 1894).
Tookoku Ki 透谷忌

Toosan 塔山 / トウ山 Tosan Disciple of Basho

Tooyama 遠山景元 Toyama Saemon no Jo Kagemoto
(1793 – 1855) - Machibugyo in Edo
Tōyama no Kin-san (遠山の金さん) Toyama no Kinsan

TORAHIKO, Terada Torahiko 寺田 寅彦 (November 28, 1878 - December 31, 1935)
author. Torahiko Ki 寅彦忌 - Fuyuhiko Ki 冬彦忌

. Torii Kiyonaga 鳥居清長 (1752 - 1815) . - ukiyo-e painter

Torii Kiyotada 鳥居清忠 - woodblock prints
active about 1716 - 36 - Fudo Myo-O and Kabuki prints

Toriyama Sekien 鳥山石燕 - (1712 – 1788) Yokai painter

Tosa Mitsuoki 土佐光起 The Tosa school of painters

Toyohara Kunichika 豊原 国周 . * (1835 – 1900) - Painter

Toyotomi Hideyoshi 豊臣秀吉 (1537 - 1598)

Tsuboi Tokoku 坪井杜国 (? - 1690) - 万菊丸 Mangikumaru.

Tsubouchi Nenten (1944 - ) - Haiku poet

Tsuchimikado, Tsuchi no Mikado 土御門天皇 - (1196 – 1231) Tenno

Tsuchiya Koitsu 土屋こういつ <> Woodblock Prints

Tsugaru Lords from Aomori
Tsugaru Tamenobu 津軽為信 (1550 - 1608) / Tsugaru Nobuhira 津軽信牧 (1586 - 1631) / Tsugaru Nobuyoshi 津軽信義 (1619 - 1655)

Tsujimura Juusaburo 辻村寿三郎 Tsujimura Jusaburo - active doll artist

Tsukahara Bokuden 塚原卜伝- (1489 - 1571) - Swordsman

Tsukamoto Jooshu 塚本如舟 Joshu
(? - 1724) at Shimada-juku 島田宿

Tsukioka Yoshitoshi 月岡芳年 (1839 – June 9, 1892)
..... Tsukioka Kogyo 月岡耕漁 (1869-1927) (Tsukioka Koogyo)

Tsukushi Bansei 筑紫磐井 (1950, January 14 - )

Tsuruya Kiemon 鶴屋喜右衛門 / 仙鶴堂 Senkakudo Publisher in Edo

Tsuruya Nanboku 鶴屋南北 Tsuruya Namboku - Kabuki actor family

. Tsutaya Jūzaburō 蔦屋重三郎 Tsutaya Jusaburo .
(1750 - 1797) Publisher in Edo