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31/07/2016

Chiyo no Fuji

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Chiyo no Fuji 千代の富士 Chiyonofuji
Kokonoe Oyakata 九重親方

(June 1, 1955 – July 31, 2016)



- quote
Chiyonofuji Mitsugu 千代の富士 貢
Mitsugu Akimoto (秋元 貢 Akimoto Mitsugu), was a Japanese champion sumo wrestler and the 58th yokozuna of the sport. He was the stable master of Kokonoe stable.

Chiyonofuji was one of the greatest yokozuna of recent times, winning 31 yusho or tournament championships, second at the time only to Taihō. He was particularly remarkable for his longevity in sumo's top rank, which he held for a period of ten years from 1981 to 1991. Promoted at the age of twenty-six after winning his second championship, he seemed only to improve with age and won more tournaments in his thirties than any other wrestler, finally retiring in May 1991 just short of his thirty-sixth birthday. This is in contrast to most recent yokozuna who have tended to retire around 30.

During his 21-year professional career Chiyonofuji set records for most career victories (1045) and most wins in the top makuuchi division (807). This caused him to be listed by Guinness World Records Both of these records were later broken by Kaiō Hiroyuki.

He won the Kyushu tournament, one of the six annual honbasho, a record eight consecutive years from 1981 until 1988, and also set the record for the longest postwar run of consecutive wins (53 bouts in 1988). That record stood for 22 years until Hakuhō broke it with his 54th straight win in September 2010.

In a sport where weight is often regarded as vital, Chiyonofuji was quite light at around 120 kg (260 lb). He relied on superior technique and muscle to defeat opponents. He was the lightest yokozuna since Tochinoumi in the 1960s. Upon his retirement he became an elder of the Japan Sumo Association under the name
Kokonoe Oyakata 九重親方.

Kokonoe underwent surgery for pancreatic cancer in July of 2015, and was noticeably weak when speaking to reporters at the Aki basho in September of that year. Having reportedly told associates that the cancer had spread to his heart and lungs, he had been hospitalized since the fourth day of the Nagoya tournament in 2016.
He died in Tokyo on July 31, 2016 at the age of 61.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !




Chiyo no Fuji
the long-time hero of all
Chiyo no Fuji



. Sumo wrestling 相撲 .
sumo wrestler, sumotoori 相撲取(すもうとり)


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His Kanreki dohyō-iri. One of only 10 performed ever.

九重親方(第58代横綱) - 還暦土俵入り!
- source : youtube.com -

- Reference - 千代の富士 -
- Reference - chiyo no fuji-

- - - #chiyonofuji - - -
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26/02/2016

Ii Naosuke Sakuradamon

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Ii Naosuke 井伊直弼
(November 29, 1815 – March 24, 1860)



- quote
A daimyo of Hikone (1850–1860) and also Tairō of Tokugawa Shogunate, Japan, a position he held from April 23, 1858 until his death on March 24, 1860. He is most famous for signing the Harris Treaty with the United States, granting access to ports for trade to American merchants and seamen and extraterritoriality to American citizens. He was also an enthusiastic and accomplished practitioner of the Japanese tea ceremony, in the Sekishūryū style, and his writings include at least two works on the tea ceremony.

Under Ii Naosuke’s guidance, the Tokugawa shogunate navigated past a particularly difficult conflict over the succession to the ailing and childless Tokugawa Iesada. Ii Naosuke managed to coerce the Tokugawa Shogunate to its last brief resurgence of its power and position in Japanese society before the start of the Meiji period. Ii was assassinated in the Sakuradamon incident by a group of 17 Mito and 1 Satsuma samurai on March 24, 1860.


Edo Castle's Sakurada Gate – photographed by Felix Beato, 1863–1870.

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- - - - - Tairō
In 1858 after Hotta Masayoshi’s disastrous attempt to obtain the emperor’s approval for the Harris treaty the Tokugawa Shogun, Tokugawa Iesada (徳川家定), chose Ii Naosuke to be the Tairō (Great Elder); a decision influenced by the Kii Party. The position of Tairō, a post traditionally held by members of the Ii family, was rarely filled; in fact there had only been three Tairō between 1700 and Ii Naosuke’s rise to power 158 years later. Ii’s promotion to the post of Tairō annoyed many of the shinpan daimyo (daimyo related to the Shogun, they were unable to be members of the bakufu, but in the event of the Shogun dying heirless the next Shogun would be chosen from one of the shinpan families) including Tokugawa Nariaki. As the Tairō Ii Naosuke had both prestige and power second only to the Shogun; Ii also enjoyed the full backing of the Fudai daimyo. An intelligent and capable politician Ii Naosuke was determined to restore the power of the bakufu in Japanese policy making, both in a domestic and a foreign role.
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- - - - - Kōbu gattai and the Kazunomiya marriage 公武合体
Kōbu Gattai is the policy of binding Kyoto and Edo closer together to shore up the failing shogunate with the prestige of the imperial court. This policy was to be carried out by means of a marriage between the Shogun and the Emperor’s younger sister, Princess Kazunomiya.
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© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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The daimyo of Hikone Ii Naosuke 井伊直弼 had meat from Omi cows  近江牛 prepared as misozuke, pickled in miso paste, and send it to Edo to the Tokugawa Shogun, especially also to Nariaki of Mito 水戸斉昭.
Nariaki even wrote a letter to thank for the meat.

Original from ...  slia.on.arena.ne.jp/rekishi/index.html
徳川斉昭書状別紙, 嘉永元年(1848年)12月
(彦根城博物館蔵)

The beef from Hikone was also dried in the cold 「寒」の干牛肉 during the coldest month of January and then eaten as "medicine".
When Ii Naosuke was killed in the Sakuradamon incident on March 24, 1860, by a group of samurai from Mito, the shipments to Mito Tokugawa Nariaki stopped and Nariaki was quite unhappy about this turn of events.

. Eating Meat in Edo .

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Sakurada Mon 桜田門 lit. Gate of the Field of Cherry Trees


source : 桜田門外の変」を歩く

Sakurada mon is Nr. 10


The Sakuradamon Incident 桜田門外の変 Sakuradamon-gai no Hen
桜田門の変 Sakuradamon no Hen


- quote -
the assassination of Japanese Chief Minister (Tairō) Ii Naosuke (1815–1860) on 24 March 1860 by rōnin samurai of the Mito Domain, outside the Sakurada Gate of Edo Castle.

The assassination took place outside the Shogun's Edo Castle in Edo (modern Tokyo), just as Ii Naosuke was reaching the premises. Ii Naosuke had been warned about his safety, and many encouraged him to retire from office, but he refused, replying that "My own safety is nothing when I see the danger threatening the future of the country".



A total of 17 Mito rōnin ambushed Ii Naosuke together with Arimura Jisaemon (有村次左衛門), a samurai from Satsuma Domain. While an attack at the front drew the attention of the guards, a lone assassin fired one shot into the palanquin containing Ii Naosuke, with a Japanese-made Colt 1851 Navy Revolver, which had been copied from the firearms that Perry had given the Shogunate as gifts. Drawing the injured and likely paralyzed Ii Naosuke out, Arimura decapitated Ii Naosuke and then committed seppuku.
Arimura Jisaemon, on the point of committing the assassination.

The conspirators carried a manifesto on themselves, outlining the reason for their act:
- snip -
- - - - - Consequences
The popular upheaval against foreign encroachment and assassination of Ii Naosuke forced the Bakufu to soften its stance, and to adopt a compromise policy of Kōbu Gattai ("Union of the Emperor and the Shogun") suggested by Satsuma Domain and Mito Domain, in which both parties vied for political supremacy in the years to follow. This soon amplified into the violent Sonnō Jōi ("Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians") movement.

For the following years until the fall of Bakufu in 1868, Edo, and more generally the streets of Japan, would remain notably hazardous for Bakufu officials (see attack on Andō Nobumasa) and foreigners alike (Richardson murder), as the Sonno Joi movement continued to expand. According to Sir Ernest Satow: "A bloody revenge was taken on the individual [Ii Naosuke], but the hostility to the system only increased with time, and in the end brought about its complete ruin".

The conflict reached its resolution with the military defeat of the Shogunate in the Boshin war, and the installation of the Meiji restoration in 1868.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !




source : d4.dion.ne.jp/~ponskp/bakumatsu

On the famous painting of the incident, you can see some normal Samurai without shoes.
It was winter and a rare snowfall of about 20 cm kept the rather unprotected palanquin bearers and accompanying samurai cold. So many of the 60 people in the procession, who were only hired for the job, did not protect Naosuke but just run away when they heard the shots.
(Some sources quote one shot, others quote two or more.)

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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

春寒料峭井伊直弼に手を合はす
shunkan ryooshoo Ii Naosuke ni te o awasu

very cold spring day -
I fold my hands
for Ii Naosuke


Kawasaki Tenkoo 川崎展宏 Kawasaki Tenko (1927 - 2009)

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鳥帰る桜田門を掃き終り
斉藤夏風

浮寝鳥桜田門の日向かな
瀧井孝作




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. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 in Edo .

鮒ずしや 彦根の城に 雲かゝる
funazushi ya hikone no shiro ni kumo kakaru

Cruician sushi!
Hikone Castle
Covered with floating clouds.

Tr. hokuoto77

'A crucian sushi' was a favorite with Buson.
The crucian sushi is a specialty of Otsu district in Shiga Prefecture. Today Otsu City is nine minutes train ride from Kyoto City and Hikone City about forty minutes train ride from Otsu City.
The crucian sushi in the Haiku must have been one of products of Otsu region. Crucian's scales gills, visceral parts are taken away and the rest are salted. After this process, slices are sandwiched between rice, one by one, and pressed for some time to be fermented naturally. The seasoning and maturing of crucian sushi is a very delicate operation. The whole process calls for skill and experience. Of course, it must be a well-kept trade secret.

*The Poet wrote to Tairo(大魯), one of his disciples:
  「此句、解スべく解すべからざるものに候。とかく聞得る人まれニて、只几董のみ微笑いたし候」
  (Kono ku kaisu bekara zaru mono ni soro. tokaku kiki uru hito mare nite, tada, kito nomi misho itashi soro.)
 It translates:
   "The Haiku is not appreciated as it should be and people are apt to miss its depth. It is only Kito (几董) who smiled to me with its understanding."
(Translated by hokuto77). In the same letter Buson asked Tairo (大魯) for comments on the Haiku. I can’t possibly get Tairo’s comments at all.
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Impression:
The Poet had a rest at a tea house on Lake Biwa, enjoying his favorite crucian sushi. A cloud formed from the lake and was drifting up towards the Castle Tower of Hikone. He happened to notice the scene. I believe the cloud was not a figment of his imagination but really existed. The cloud plays a prominent role in the Haiku. It's very clear the cloud will cause no shower of rain at all.
 Academic critics say the taste of well matured 'crucian sushi' and the large-scaled landscape, together with the early summer breeze, gave a lot of refreshment to the Poet.
The scenery in the Haiku is magnificent. Even to those who haven’t ever tasted a crucian sushi, nor seen Hikone Castle in the distance, the Haiku will give a breathtaking impression. The rest of sushi haiku by the Poet may well be thought to be discolored by this eminent one.
 Here, I think we must carefully consider at what point Kito (几董) nodded smiling to Buson.

 The floating cloud can’t be regarded as an omen, good or bad, for the future of the Poet or the castle. It’s just a moving piece of the workings of Nature in the still vast scenery which the Poet is viewing quite by chance. The key is how to interpret the sailing cloud.

 I know my guess is wide of the mark. Kito's impression goes:
 "Well matured crucian sushi gives him a deeply satisfying feeling and he admires the scenery around him with a real sense of fulfilled existence. Right now, a cloud rising from on Lake Biwa has come up obscuring the Castle. As sushi has thoroughly melted into my body, so he himself merged into this vast landscape filled with splendor and he feel as if riding on the floating cloud and he’ve begun to wonder if it keeps sailing for Eternity."
 I know Kito (几董) is acutely aware that Eternity is the very thing that Buson seeks.
- source : hokuoto77.com/buson-su -


crucian carp sushi -
the castle of Hikone
is wrapped in clouds

Tr. Gabi Greve

. funazushi, funa sushi, bunazushi ふな寿司 .
- kigo for summer -

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- Reference - Japanese 桜田門の変 -
- Reference - English sakuradamon-


. Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets .

- KAPPA 河童 water goblin - ABC-Index -
- - - #sakuradamon #iinaosuke #naosukeiihikone #hikone - - -
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. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo .

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18/09/2015

Shibukawa Shunkai Harumi

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. koyomi 暦 Japanese calendars .
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Shibukawa Shunkai 渋川春海 Shibukawa Harumi
(1639 - 1715)



- quote
also known as Shibukawa Harumi, Yasui Santetsu II 二世保井算哲, and
Motoi Santetsu 保井 算晢, was a Japanese scholar, go player and the first official astronomer appointed of the Edo period.
He revised the Chinese lunisolar calendar at the imperial request, drawing up the Jōkyō calendar which was issued in 1684 during the Jōkyō era. In 1702, he changed his name to Shibukawa Sukezaemon Shunkai and retired by 1711. As a go player, he was affiliated with the Yasui house, calling himself initially (after his father) Yasui Santetsu II. He is mentioned as a Tengen player in Yamashita Keigo 's book: Challenging Tenge.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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The Jōkyō calendar (貞享暦 Jōkyō-reki) was a Japanese lunisolar calendar, in use from 1684 to 1753. It was officially adopted in 1685.
The Jōkyō-reki system was developed and explained by Shibukawa Shunkai. He recognized that the length of the solar year is 365.2417 days.
Shibukawa discovered errors in the traditional Chinese calendar, the Semmyō calendar, which had been in use for 800 years.


Japan has been using the Gregorian calendar since 1874,
but still refers to its KYUREKI 旧暦, the old calendar, on many occasions.
. Calendar Systems of Japan - Introduction .
Calendar History / Local calendars / E-goyomi (Picture calendar) / Daisho-reki calendars / Various forms of calendars

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- quote -
Shibukawa Harumi
Title:Tenmon gata
Japanese:澁川春海(Shibukawa Harumi or Shibukawa Shunkai)
Other names Yasui Santetsu II 二世保井算哲 Motoi Santetsu 保井 算晢

Harumi was born into a family of go-players to the shogunate, but was also interested in mathematics and astronomy. At that time Japan was still calculating the calendar using the Tang calendar the Senmyô calendar 宣明暦, which it had adopted in 8612, and inaccuracies in the calendar were obvious, especially that the winter solstice was calculated almost two days late. Also, it was not very accurate with eclipses, in particular predicted far too many. Harumi like some other scholars of the time believed that the Mongol-period Juji calendar 授時暦, which was the apex of the Chinese calendar tradition,should be adopted in Japan.

Through his professional connections as a go-player he was able to interest several officials in the project, especially Hoshina Masanori 保科正之 of Aizu, the shogun's guardian, and Mito Mitsukuni. He made a table of eclipses as predicted by the Senmyô and Juji calendars to prove the superiority of the later.

However, on 1675/5/1 an eclipse that was predicted by the Senmyô calendar but not by the Juji calendar did occur, and so the idea of changing calendars was rejected. Harumi managed to get hold of a (forbidden) Chinese work on western astronomy, and "localized" the 13th-century Chinese calendar for 17th century Japan, and in 1683 petitioned the imperial court to adopt the "Yamato" calendar. However, the next year the court decided to adopt the Ming-period Daitô calendar 大統暦, a very slight revision of the Juji calendar. Harumi again petitioned, saying the Daitou calendar was not suitable for Japan, and finally on 1684/10/29 the Yamato calendar was accepted, and it went into effect the next year as the Jôkyô calendar 貞享暦.

After that, the shogunate established the office of the Tenmon gata 天文方, and Harumi became the first holder of that post. He had an observatory on his property and built some astronomical instruments.
- source : wiki.samurai-archives.com -


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tenmongata, tenmonkata 天文方 - Astronomical Bureau with officer in charge of astronomy
Members of Yoshida family inherited the position of Tenmonkata until the end of Edo period.


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tenmondai 天文台 Edo observatory
In the late Edo Period, the Tokugawa shogunate’s astronomical observatory was built in the location that is now known as Asakusabashi 3-chome. The facility was responsible for conducting astronomical observation, creating calendar-construction rules, surveying lands, compiling geographical descriptions and translating Western books.,
The observatory was an astronomical office where calendars were compiled, originally, the facility was called "Hanreki-sho Goyo Yashiki," it was also known as "Shitendai" and "Asakusa Tenmondai."
The astronomical observatory was essential in order to create accurate calendars..



Hokusai Katsushika
was a well-known ukiyoe artist who was active in the late Edo Period. The Asakusa Observatory, equipped with an armillary sphere, is depicted against a backdrop of Mt. Fuji in "Torigoe no Fuji," which is a print contained in "One Hundred Views of Mt. Fuji" by Hokusai.
At the observatory, Yoshitoki Takahashi, an official astronomer, and others observed celestial bodies in order to conduct the Kansei calendar reform. Tadataka Inoh was a disciple of Yoshitoki.
(Reference: Taito Meisho Zue)

Heitengi Zukai (1802)
"Heitengi Zukai," a handbook of astronomy, was written by Zenbe Iwasaki, who was also a maker of telescopes. The book includes illustrations of the sun, the moon and stars, which were observed by him using a refracting telescope.

The Astronomical Herald (1910)
"The Astronomical Herald" is a journal of the Astronomical Society of Japan, which was established in 1908. Observations of Halley's Comet, which passed the Earth in 1910, are written in the journal.
- source : taito-culture.jp -

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Asakusa Tenmondai 浅草天文台 Asakusa Observatory

- quote -
Asakusa Observatory
. . . until about 170 years ago, Asakusabashi was scientifically and technologically one of the most important places in Japan thanks to the astronomical observatory that used to be here, and which included offices for the study of the latest scientific literature from overseas.
Not far from where the observatory was is a signboard, on the south-west corner of Kuramae 1-chome intersection. The following is a full translation of the Japanese information on the signboard (which is only partially translated into English on the signboard).
- - - Site of Astronomical Observatory
In the late Edo era, a little west of this spot, was an astronomical observatory on a road running through an area comprising the whole of Asakusabashi 3-chome 21-24 banchi, and part of 19-, 25- and 26-banchi. Besides astronomical observation, it also hosted other pursuits such as calendar-rule research, surveying, compilation of topographical data, and the translation of Western books.

The observatory was known as Shitendai or Asakusa-tenmondai, and was transferred here in 1782 from Ushigome-waradana (current day Fukuromachi in Shinjuku ward) and rebuilt. It was officially named Hanrekidokoro-goyoyashiki ("The Imperial Office of Calendar Making") which, as the name suggests, was part of the government office, the Tenmongata, for working out the calendar. Astronomical observations were required to ensure calendar accuracy.


Signboard for site of old Asakusa Observatory, Taito ward, Tokyo.

According to a historical document known as Shitendai-no-ki ("Shitendai Records"), the Shitendai observatory was built on top of an artificial hill about 93.6 meters in circumference and about 9.3 meters high. The observatory was a square building, with each wall about 5.5 meters long, access being provided by 43 stone steps. Another historical record, the Kansei-rekisho ("Chronicles of the Kansei Era") states that there were two separate flights of stone stairs, each of 50 steps, and that the artificial hill was 9 meters high.
- snip -
It was here at the Asakusa Observatory that the astronomer Takahashi Yoshitoki (1764-1804) revised the calendar for the Kansei era (1789-1801). One of his understudies was Ino Tadakata (1745-1818), a surveyor and cartographer known for completing the first map of Japan. Before starting his survey of the whole of Japan, Ino first set out to establish the length of one degree of latitude by working out the direction of the observatory from his house in Fukugawa and the distance between them. After Takahashi’s death, upon the advice of his son and heir, Kakeyasu, in 1811 an office for translating foreign books, the Bansho-wage-goyo (蕃所和解御用), was established on the premises.
This office underwent many transformations: from Yogakusho ("Center for Western Learning"), to Bansho-shirabesho ("Western Learning Research and Educational Institute"), to Yosho-shirabesho ("Western Writings Institute"), to Kaiseisho/Kaiseijo (“Office for Opening and Developing”), to Kaisei Gakko (“School for Opening and Developing”), to Daigaku-nanko (“University Southern School”), and was a precursor institution of the current University of Tokyo.

Another observatory was built at Kudanzakaue (present day Kudankita, Chiyoda ward) in 1842, but both were abolished in 1869, in the second year of the modernizing Meiji era.
- source : japanvisitor.blogspot.jp - 1999 -


- reference - edo tenmongata -

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. Sakuma Tenmondai 佐久間天文台 Sakuma observatory .
Sakuma no Sokuryoosho 佐久間町の測量所 Sokuryosho surveying office
神田佐久間町2丁目 Kanda Sakumacho district

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Edo no Tenmongaku 江戸の天文学 Astronomy in Edo



. koyomi uri 暦売 seller of new calendars .


. Welcome to Edo 江戸 ! .

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- Reference - Japanese -

- Reference - English -


. Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets .

- - - #shibukawa #tenmongaku #tenmon #astronomy #edoastronomy - - -
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18/08/2015

Sendai Shiro

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Sendai Shiroo 仙台四郎 / 仙臺四郎 Sendai Shiro
Haga Shiroo 芳賀四郎 Haga Shiro


(1855 - 1902) - , Shirou Sendai



- quote
Sendai Shiro (仙臺四郎 or sometimes 仙台四郎), born Haga Shiro,
was a real person who was said to have lived during the late Edo period through the early Meiji period from 1860-1902. He was born a man but is remembered as a god of fortune. Like most legends and their back stories, there are several slightly different versions of how Sendai Shiro came to be. I will be sharing a mix of what I have read, heard, and seen.​

One hot summer August evening, the young boy Haga set out to see the fireworks marking the beginning of the city famous Tanabata Festival. Just like today, the best spot to see the fireworks is along the Hirose River. Fighting the crowds and struggling to get a better view, the innocent boy leaned too far over the ledge of a bridge and fell head first straight into the shallow river. Possibly hitting his head and nearly drowning, Haga was never the same. Likely suffering from brain damage, he lost the ability to use or remember most speech and his mental ability deteriorated. Most origin stories fail to mention the boys' parents or guardians. Maybe the young boy was abandoned after the accident. In either case, Haga soon became a common sight wandering aimlessly downtown around the shopping arcades, rarely talking but always smiling. As time went on, something strange began to happen.

Stores Haga frequented did well, even prospering in business. At the same time, establishments ignored by the iconic shaved-head and now growing larger man soon went bankrupt. Locals started calling Haga Shiro a good luck charm. Shop owners tried to coerce Haga into their stores and restaurants were known to treat him to free food. He was a popular sight and everyone wanted to be his friend. It must have been a leisurely life for someone who would have struggled to survive without the care he received from others.

Time went on and eventually Haga, now in his late forties, disappeared from the busy marketplace. Some say he wandered off to die or wandered off then died. To where? No one knows for certain. Several years after Shiro's mysterious death, a shrewd businessman had the idea to sell good luck charms with Haga Shiro's picture and face. The goods became wildly popular and Haga Shiro was soon immortalized as a city legend; the god of good luck, wealth, and prosperity would forever be known as Sendai Shiro.

More critical observers discredit the Sendai Shiro myth. They argue businesses which care little about their customers or reputation and only about money, probably had poor business practices. It was natural for them to be uninviting and eventually close down. Conversely, stores with excellent people skills would serve and welcome someone like Haga. Having the supposed good luck of Sendai Shiro played little importance to these stores as it was their customer service which really brought in customers and secured continuing and future success.



- - - - - Sendai Shiro Today
The spirit of Sendai Shiro is enshrined in Mitakisan Fudo-In Temple (三瀧山不動院). It is a temple located right inside the middle of Clis Road, the heart of the same shopping arcades Sendai Shiro became a legend. The Shingon sect temple is impressive in its own right with several artistic Buddhist statues inside its main hall. The lane leading to the prayer hall has Buddhist items sold on the right side and Sendai Shiro goods sold on the left. Climb the few stairs and look left before going inside the main hall to see a statue of Sendai Shiro. Why not pray for riches here? Next to the statue you can see images of him in picture form. These same pictures of the real Sendai Shiro can be found in many businesses across the city, usually near the cash register watching over the money. Take a look and you are sure to spot them during your travels.
Also keep an eye out for the Sendai Shiro look-alike known as "Heisei Shiro." This cheerful man appears in some local promotional internet videos and can be seen at some local events.
- source : Justin Velgus


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. Sendai no hariko men 仙台の張子面 papermachee masks . 
mask of 仙台四郎 Sendai Shiro

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CLICK for more dolls of Sendai Shiro!


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不思議な福の神「仙台四郎」の解明
―その実在と世界の分析 なぜ御利益は必ず訪れるのか!?

大沢忍 (著)



- Reference - Japanese -

- further reference -

- - - #sendaishiro - - -
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29/11/2014

Shinnen and the Henro Trail

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Saint Shinnen Hoshi 真念法師
宥弁坊真念 Yuben-bo Shinnen


active around 1680.

His life work was to bring back life to the Henro pilgrimage in Shikoku by erecting more than 200 stone markers
四国遍路道指南(みちしるべ) Shikoku Henro Michi Shirube
and writing a travel guide, published in 1687.
He was also the first to add the numbers from 01 to 88 to the temples on the road
and erecting stone markers.

They are all about 77 cm high and rounded at the top.
The stone comes from Hyogo prefecture, go-eiseki 御影石, kakoogan 花崗岩 granite. They have been transported by ship to Shikoku and put in place with great diligence and effort by Shinnen.
Since the stone markers are mentioned in his book, he must have been putting them up before that, around 1680.
Before this, the Henro pilgrims have mostly been monks on their quest for Buddhism.
But after Shinnen published his book, more lay people began making this long pilgrimage.



stone marker in Sakaide town 坂出市青海町

39 (or 37) of his stone markers have not yet been found.
Now there is a group to study his lifework
四国遍路道学術調査研究会
click on any of the 24 entries to see a stone marker in detail with a map:
- source : www.shikoku-np.co.jp/feature


玉垣に隠れて建つ真念の道標
観音寺市八幡町 at Kannonji tonw, Hachiman village
琴弾八幡神社 near Kotohira Hachiman Jinja



inscription
「左遍ん路みち 願主(ねがいぬし)

真念はその中で八十八カ所とそのルートを示し「四国遍路」の原型を示した。「八十八」という言葉は、真念以前の巡拝記にも見られるが、札所ごとに一番から八十八番までの番号を付けたのは真念であり、四国八十八カ所を創った人物と言える。
- source : www.shikoku-np.co.jp



真念の標石発見/江戸前期遍路解明史料に
a stone marker from Kagawa prefecture, Marugame town
- source : www.shikoku-np.co.jp/kagawa_news


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真念法師の旧お墓跡(高松市牟礼町塩屋)昭和55年2月 洲崎寺に移された
His grave in Takamatsu



真念庵(高知県土佐清水市下ノ加江市野瀬)
Shinnen-An 真念庵 a kind of shelter he erected for the lay pilgrims.



- at Takamatsu 香川県高松市亀水町

List of 37 stone markers
真念法師の道標(37基)詳細へ
- source : kukai1944.web.fc2.com/douhyou_sinnenhousi

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真念庵(しんねんあん) Shinnen-An - Bangai 番外札所 01
located at the Ashizuri Henro Trail あしずりへんろ道.
There is nobody in charge there, so the villagers of the nearby village at the foot of the mountain offer a stamp for the pilgrim's stamp book (and often some o-settai refreshments).
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

erected aroung 天和年間(1681 - 83)by 宥弁坊真念



- take a virtual walk along the Ashizuri Henro Trail toward Shinnen-An
- source : d.hatena.ne.jp/boianuf



The pilgrim's stamp of Shinnen-An 納経印
Since it is given by a lay person of the village, there is no brush inscription, only some stamps in black and red.






納経印は墨印部分のみ二種類ある。通常は左のものであろう。墨印の文字は「奉納経 〔地蔵菩薩の種字「カ」〕本尊地蔵薩 〔梵字の「カン」?〕弘法大師 土佐幡多足摺打戻 市ノ瀬山 眞念庵」。
朱印は右が「日本第一霊場」、中央上が弘法大師の絵像に「大正三年土佐眞念菴千百年紀念印」(弘法大師による四国霊場開創千百年のことであろう)、中央下は宝珠に地蔵菩薩の種字「カ」、左下は「土佐ハタ一ノセ山眞念菴」。
右のものの墨印部分は「奉納経 本尊地蔵大士 土州幡多郡市瀬山 眞念菴」。
- source : goshuin.ko-kon.net/shikoku88


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「四国遍路道指南」 Shikoku Henro Michishirube
という江戸時代のガイド本を元に、俳優・西岡徳馬と娘・優妃が四国遍路を旅する。

Father and daughter Nishioka are walking along the Shikoku Henro path.
According to the diary of Shinnen.



- source : www.nhk.or.jp/matsuyama/henro1200


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Making Pilgrimages: Meaning And Practice in Shikoku
By Ian Reader
- google here for the parts about Shinnen :
- source : books.google.co.jp


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荒井とみ二 / 「遍路図絵」

四国遍路関連古書 List of old books about the Henro trail
from 承応2年 - 1653
澄禅 - 「四国遍路日記」 - 宮崎忍勝
to 平成18年 - 2006
- source : www5a.biglobe.ne.jp/~outfocus/eurail


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. General Henro Information - My Introduction .
四国お遍路さん Henro Pilgrims in Shikoku

to 88 temples in honor of Kobo Daishi Kukai




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02/12/2013

Sen Rikyu

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Sen Rikyuu, Sen Rikyū 千利休 Sen Rikyu, Sen no Rikyu 


quote
Sen Rikyū 千利休 
1522 - April 21, 1591 (some dates give March 28.)
陰暦二月二十八日 28th day of the 2nd lunar month



the historical figure with the most profound influence on chanoyu, the Japanese "Way of Tea", particularly the tradition of wabi-cha. Rikyū is known by many names; for convenience this article will refer to him as Rikyū throughout.

There are three iemoto (sōke), or "head houses" of the Japanese Way of Tea, that are directly descended from Rikyū:
the Omotesenke, Urasenke, and Mushakōjisenke,
all three of which are dedicated to passing forward the teachings of their mutual family founder, Rikyū.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


If you have one pot
And can make your tea in it
That will do quite well.
How much does he lack himself
Who must have a lot of things?

When you hear the splash
Of the water drops that fall
Into the stone bowl
You will feel that all the dust
Of your mind is washed away.


Sen Rikyu



. WKD : Tea Ceremony Saijiki 茶道の歳時記 .

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- - - Look at a tea ceremony on his memorial day :
source : www.urasenke.or.jp/textm

Rikyuu Ki 利休忌 (りきゅうき) Rikyu Memorial Day
Sooeki Ki 宗易忌(そうえきき)
Rikyuu Ki 利久忌(りきゅうき)
kigo for mid-spring


we drink
green tea
with ceremony


- Shared by Pat Geyer -
Haiku Culture Magazine, 2013


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Sen Rikyu film--
a passing silhouette goes
with the subtitles


We watched a marvelous Film at the movie theatre hall. The movie was about a tea Master called Rikyu and his way of tea preparation, his life with his pupil(s) and his philosophies concerning "The way Of tea". If I can remember well, he attached "Tea" with simplicity and modesty until his death. Tea ceremony, we were told,is a ritual conducted even now.

Caleb Mutua, Kenya 2009


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rikyuubai 利休梅 "Rikyu plum"
..... 利久梅(りきゅうばい)
リキュウバイ - Exochorda racemosa
Pearlbush or Common Pearlbush, is a species of plant in the rose family.
plant kigo for early summer

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Matsuo Basho remembers Sen Rikyu and Sakai

口切に堺の庭ぞなつかしき
. kuchikiri ni Sakai no niwa zo natsukashiki .
kuchikiri ceremony


袖の色よごれて寒し濃鼠 
. sode no iro yogorete samushi koi nezumi .
in memoriam of the father of Senka, Basho's disciple 仙化が父追善


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Sen no Rikyu 千 利休, another famous tea master at the times of Shokado, used to serve his meals in a box in the form of a half-moon (hangetsu 半月).

CLICK for more half moon boxes

. Shookadoo 松花堂 Shokado "Pine Flower Pavillion" .


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Rikyuu meshi 利休めし rice cooked "a la Rikyu"
Rice is cooked with hoojicha tea, then dashi broth is added. Some green stems of rape (na no hana) are added as topping.
This is a typical dish of spring.



source : www.ginza-mikawaya.jp - with recipe
Rikyuu abe daikon 利休あへ大根り radish "a la Rikyu"
Flavored with cinamon and sesame.



Rikyuu tamago - Kurumi tamago 利休卵 / 胡桃卵 - eggs "a la Rikyu"
Simmered egg with ground sesame seeds (or ground walnut meat), flavored with soy sauce and sake.

. 100 Favorite Dishes of Edo 江戸料理百選 .

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Rikyu Rat Grey, Rikyuu nezu 利休鼠





quote
The Nature of Rikyu Grey
..... If one is going to name a certain sensation, formulate an outline of its features, trace its history or search for the origin of that sensation, it must inspire a profound sympathy yet awake a certain critical awareness. For me, such a sensation is "Rikyu grey." The sensation of Rikyu grey represents an aesthetic of an ambivalent or multiple meaning. My interest in it began seventeen years ago when, with a number of friends, I had started the Metabolism movement and developed a strong dissatisfaction with functional architecture.
Function as a criterion in architecture achieved many things, but it also resulted in the articulation and concretization of space.
In the process of providing rationally and clearly articulated spaces, the virtues of nebulous and undifferentiated space that naturally exist between demarcated areas was totally neglected. Spaces which might embrace tow or more meanings were eliminated in functional architecture.
A long philosophical essay :
source : KISHO KUROKAWA


RIKYU GREY AND THE ART OF AMBIGUITY

Read about this color and Japanese Architecture
by KISHO KUROKAWA
. WKD : The Color Gray and Haiku .


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Rediscovering Rikyu and the Beginnings of the Japanese Tea Ceremony

Stephen Mansfield



Herbert Plutschow’s “rediscovery” of the great tea master, Sen-no-Rikyu (1522-91), explores the complex relationship between politics and the arts during the final years of the Warring States era. The author is less interested in Rikyu’s achievements and legacy than why his suicide was the inevitable result of the collision of art, politics and ritual. In an object lesson on not mixing politics and aesthetics, Rikyu’s relations with the generalissimo Toyotomi Hideyoshi would prove disastrous. An admirer of Rikyu, Hideyoshi exploited the locations of teahouses as venues for secret political meetings, something that must have deeply unsettled the tea master.
Although the reasons remain largely unexplained, Plutschow comes as close as any writer to revealing the truth of Rikyu’s death: his position, it seems, his very authority and status, somehow represented a slight to the general, prompting him to order the master to commit seppuku (ritual disembowelment). With typical resignation, and a touch of studied disassociation, Rikyu’s death poem, not included in this book, reads:

Seventy years of life
Ha ha! And what a fuss!
With this sacred sword of mine
Both Buddhas and Patriarchs I kill.

- source : Japan Times, January 2016 -

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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

初霜や笑顔見世たる茶の聖
hatsu-shimo ya egao misetaru cha no hijiri

first frost --
a smile on the face
of the tea sage Rikyu

Tr. Chris Drake

This hokku was found among Issa's papers after he died (Collected Works 1.650), so its date of composition is unknown, though it is probably from late in his life. Issa uses an epithet (also pronounced chasei 茶聖) to evoke the most famous tea master in Japanese history, Sen no Rikyu (1522-91), who came to be regarded as a sage or wizard. (The term is sometimes translated tea saint, but the worldly Rikyu was not a typical saint.) Rikyu perfected a simple, bare style of tea ceremony that was held in small teahouses in gardens designed to suggest wild nature and carried out as a form of spiritual meditation.

His style of reclusive, Zen-influenced tea ceremony was also perfect for secret negotiations between warlords, and Rikyu overheard many top-secret conversations during his career. The shogun Hideyoshi trusted him and made him his official tea master, but for some reason, perhaps because of a paranoid belief that Rikyu considered himself greater than Hideyoshi, he ordered Rikyu to commit ritual suicide with a sword. Rikyu, living dangerously in a period when various warlords were struggling for power, was portrayed with a very dour look on his face, an expression he must have used when leading tea ceremonies for powerful warriors, but Issa evokes him in a private moment. The implication may be that Rikyu, a commoner who lived and worked in a warrior world, is smiling a rare smile.

It is natural for Rikyu to be smiling, because the appearance of frost indicates that the Way of Tea New Year's is near or has just arrived. The tea ceremony annual schedule began early in the 10th month on the first Day of the Wild Boar (around the middle of November). On this day in Japan all sorts of ovens, hearths, and fireplaces were lit for the first time amid celebrations and the eating of special foods such as boar-shaped rice cakes.

For tea masters, this was the day on which they lit a fire in the sunken hearth in an opening in the straw-mat floor of the tea house. From the 4th through 9th months they used charcoal braziers for heating (but not boiling) water for tea in iron teapots, but they preferred cold weather and sunken hearths. Soon after the hearth was lit, another important New Year's ceremony was held: large, tightly sealed jars of freshly plucked tea leaves from early in the summer were opened for the first time, and the leaves were ground into fine green powder to which not-quite-boiling water was added during the tea ceremony. This powdered tea was the most common form of tea used at tea ceremonies, and grinding the leaves was done with great care.

The first frost in the hokku indicates that the best season of the year for holding tea ceremonies has arrived, and Rikyu has reason to smile. He may also be smiling because the delicate frost will be walked through by his visitors to his morning tea ceremony, adding a dimension of ethereal beauty to the overall performance. There may also be some sort of historical reference to Rikyu's life in the hokku, but it's difficult to determine whether there is or not, since the date of the hokku is unknown.

Above is a famous portrait of Rikyu, a reproduction of which Issa could have seen. In contrast, the smile by the "tea sage" in the hokku is striking.

Chris Drake

. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .



. Zen-Master Eisai 栄西禅師 (1141 - 1215) - Saint of Tea 茶の聖. .


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source : himawari6.blog14.fc2.com


- Reference - Japanese -
- Reference - English -

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19/06/2013

Sugino Suikei

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- Sugino Suikei 杉野翠兄
and 大島蓼太 Oshima Ryota -


(1754-1813) 
He died on the 27th day of the 10th lunar month 文化10年.

He was an oil merchant in Ibaraki, Hitachi 常陸 Ryuugasaki竜ケ崎.
He studied haiku with Ooshima Ryoota 大島蓼太 Ryota - see below -. Ryota was a discpile of the Basho school of haikai. Both tried to revive the Basho Haikai movement.

His name was 以貞, but he was often called Jihei 治兵衛
Another haikai name was Tsukuba An 筑波庵 "Tsukuba Hermitage", Doorin 道隣 Dorin.

In 1781 he climbed Mount Tsukuba with Ryota. During this trip they wrote

鴛の巣もかけてたのむや筑波山 
Ryota 蓼太

つもる清水の 爰みなの川
Suikei 翠兄





source with more photos : doredore110

His grave is at temple Daitooji 大統寺 Daito-Ji in Ryugasaki, Ibaraki






. WKD : Mount Tsukuba (筑波山 Tsukuba-san) .


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Suikei was a friend of

. WKD : Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .



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Ooshima Ryoota 大島蓼太 Oshima Ryota
享保三年 (1718) ~天明七年(1787)

In 1743 he bublished a volume about "Oku no Hosomichi" 奥細道拾遺.
In 1759 he published a volume about the interpretation of hokku by Matsuo Basho. 『芭蕉句解』(蓼太著)


. Ryoota Ki 蓼太忌 Ryota Memorial Day .
September 9. - kigo for mid-autumn -

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灯火を見れは風あり夜の雪
tomoshibi o mireba kaze ari yoru no yuki

in the flame of my lamp
i see just a hint of wind
on a night of snow

Tr. Steven D. Carter


in the light of the lamp
I can see the wind --
snowy night

Tr. Grzegorz

Discussing this haiku :
. Translating Haiku Forum .


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五月雨やある夜ひそかに松の月

June rain ?
one night, secretly
moon behind pines


source : haiku.diandian.com

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ものいはず客と亭主と白菊と
mono iwazu kyaku to teishu to shiragiku to

nobody talks -
guests and host and
a white chrysanthemum

niemand spricht -
Gäste und Hausherr und
eine weisse Chrysantheme

Tr. Gabi Greve

Discussing this haiku :
. Translating Haiku Forum .


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quote- more haiku by Ryota:

割あまる都の外は桜かな

植なから松に凌くやはつしくれ

三弦も接穂時なり梅の花

鶯やしつまりかへる奈良の町

春の日や門ゆく梵論の罔両

高欄に鳥遠うして牡丹哉

菜の花爾長閑き大和河内かな

蝉啼や世の外ならぬ峰の松

蕎麦を見て夫から戻る花野哉

是にこそ煤もはき候花のはる

片枝は咲て止しか帰り花

二三尺たつ秋見たりをみなへし

みな塵ぞ雪に対しておもふ事

捨鍬に日永き水の行へかな

朝がすみ麥引立て晴にけり

参宮の留守の七五三あり春の風

もの書ばかつらに似たり白うちハ

筆取て向へば山の笑ひけり

人音の止時夏の夜明かな

足袋やからたひはいて出る初卯哉

馬かりてかはるがはるに霞みけり

琴ひとり雪を感る空音かな

打明て見せけり冬のすみだ川

新月やことしのけふのすみだ川

source : michiko328


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quote

五月雨やある夜ひそかに松の月
all the rains of June
and one evening secretly
through the pines the moon

ものいはず客と亭主と白菊と
they spoke no words
the visitor, the host
and the white chrysanthemum

saying nothing
guest and host
and white chrysanthemum

at the candle's light
I look and yes -- there is a wind
the snow tonight...

the autumn squall
blows the eagle
over the edge of the crag

bad-tempered I got back
then in the garden
the willow-tree

MORE
source : thegreenleaf.co.uk


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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

Issa wrote for him:

今からは桜一人よ窓の前
ima kara wa sakura hitori yo mado no mae

from now on
alone with cherry blossoms
outside your window


This hokku is from 4/13 (May 30) of 1806, five or six weeks after the cherry blossoms have fallen, when Issa was in a river town north of Edo.
The elegy mourns the death of the mother of Issa's friend Sugino Suikei (杉野翠兄 1754-1813), with whom he corresponded and linked renku verses. His mother seems to have been Suikei's only remaining parent, and the personal tone of the hokku suggests Issa may have met her. She has died recently, and the hokku is addressed to Suikei and tries to console him. In the future Suikei will surely miss his mother very much during the time of the cherry blossoms, since she died during or just after this time, and the blossoms will make him remember his mother all the more. Issa wants Suikei to know his thoughts will be with him not only now but whenever the cherry blossoms Suikei and his mother loved so much bloom in the future.

On the same day Issa wrote a second elegiac hokku for the soul of Suikei's mother:

imashigata kono yo ni ideshi semi no naku

just now
a cicada entered
this world crying


The hokku is mysterious. It says the soul of the cicada, one of the first of the year to appear, has just arrived in this world from the other world, and it hints that the cicada's cries retain traces of the other world. Just as Suikei's mother was leaving this world the cicada was entering it, so Issa may be suggesting to Suikei that even though his mother is dead her soul may communicate with him in this world and that he should listen very carefully even to the cries of insects.

Chris Drake


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