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28/01/2016

Nakae Toju

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. Neo-Confucianism in the Edo period .
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Nakae Tooju, Nakae Tōju 中江藤樹 Nakae Toju
(21 April 1608 – 11 October 1648)


info

- quote
a Japanese Confucian philosopher known as "the sage of Ōmi" 近江聖人.
Nakae
was a feudal retainer who lived during the Tokugawa shogunate. He taught that the highest virtue was filial piety (kō), and acted upon this, giving up his official post in 1634 in order to return to his home in Takashima, Ōmi to care of his mother. He distinguished, however, between sho-kō and dai-kō: lesser and greater filial piety.
Sho-kō involves the normal care owed by children to their parents;
dai-kō involves the notion that our human parents are themselves the children of the divine parents — thus, if one's parents are wrong, then one should encourage them to return to virtue.

He was unusual in believing that his teaching would be useful to women as well as men. While accepting the then standard view of women as usually lacking such virtues as compassion and honesty, he argued: "if a wife's disposition is healthy and pious, obedient, sympathetic and honest, then ... every member of her family will be at peace and the entire household in perfect order."

Nakae originally followed the teachings of the Chinese neo-Confucian philosopher Zhu Xi, but eventually became more influenced by Wang Yangming (1472–1529), who argued for the primacy of human intuition or conscience over intellect: moral improvement arises out of conscience-based action (compare Aristotle's ethics). Nakae added a more religious aspect to Wang's "School of Intuition of Mind", calling the human conscience the "divine light of heaven". Nakae's works also supplied his followers (such as Kumazawa Banzan [1619–1691]) with "the moral foundation for political action".

- - - - - Selected works
In a statistical overview derived from writings by and about Toju Nakae, OCLC/WorldCat encompasses roughly 130+ works in 200 publications in 5 languages and 740+ library holdings.

1650 -- Dialogue with the elder (Okina mondō 翁問答 (1831)).
藤樹遺稿 (1795)
藤樹全書: 中江藤樹先生遺稿 (1893)
中江藤樹文集 (1914)
孝經五種 (1925)
Nakae Tōju sensei zenshu (1928)
鑑草; 附・春風; 陰騭 (1939)
藤樹先生全集 (1940)
中江藤樹・熊沢蕃山集 (1966)
中江藤樹 (1974)
中江藤樹・熊沢蕃山 (1976)

© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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中江 藤樹とは

著書 - His Main Works
大学啓蒙(1628年)
持敬図説(1638年)
原人(1638年)
論語郷党啓蒙翼伝(1639年)
翁問答(1640年)
孝経啓蒙(1642年)
小医南針(1643年)
神方奇術(1644年)
鑑草(1647年)
大学考(1647年)
大学解(1647年)
中庸解(1647年)
中庸続解(1647年)


- - - - - A page about Nakae, including
翁問答
鑑草
教え
陽明学
藤樹神社 - Toju Jinja
中江藤樹生誕400年記念映画
大洲藩
熊沢蕃山
明徳出版社
- source : www.touju.jp -


Shrine 藤樹神社 Toju Jinja
69 Adogawacho Kamiogawa, Takashima, Shiga



He is the deity in residence 祭神.
創建
神社の創建に際しては、すべて寄附金でまかなわれ、寄附者は日本全国はもちろんのこと中国や朝鮮にまで及んだ。
おもな宝物としては久邇宮良子女王(香惇皇后)の御作文「吾が敬慕する人物中江藤樹」 藤樹直筆の書翰「送佃子」をはじめ熊沢蕃山や佐藤一斎の書。
さらに「藤樹先生全集」校正本等数多くある。




中江藤樹のことば ― 素読用 - by 中江彰

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- quote -
The Loss of Filial Piety Led to the Bankruptcy of the Nation.
The spirit of Toju Nakae
pointed out that efforts had been made to dismantle Japanese culture after the Second World War. This included a demolition of the Japanese household system. This household system was based on the tenets of ‘filial piety’, and the army of the occupation eradicated the filial piety that Confucians advocated. The military also eliminated the teachings on memorial services to ancestors that have been taught by Buddhism and Shintoism.

Toju analysed the root cause of the budget deficit, which an increase in social security caused. It has become a major issue in contemporary politics, and he said that politicians currently report on the problem with pensions, healthcare, and medical treatments, but if they were all to re-establish the concept of ‘filial piety’, then the ultimate result would not be a national bankruptcy, which many leaders predict for the future of Japan.

- - - - - Edo Japan Surpassed China

With regard to current educational problems, he pointed out a lack of moral education. Toju said that the present-day system excessively trivializes morals, and teachers are increasingly unable to address them.

He added, moreover, that with regard to the absence of religious convictions as a basis for morality, most of society has lost their faith and spirituality. The general public has become spineless, and the country is in a miserable state now. He expressed teachers firstly need to develop their religious faith.
Toju also expressed criticism with respect to the abolition of high school tuition fees, implemented by the then ruling Democratic Party, and said what at first glance seemed like a good idea, could also be viewed as a further trivialization of the educational system. According to Toju, there is nothing worse than a free education. Even for a poor family, one of the greatest pleasures afforded to a parent once used to be the ability to spend money on tuition and get a child into a good school.

In addition, Toju elaborated on the historical significance of the popularity of Confucianism during the Edo Period. Toju emphasized how Japanese academic prowess had already surpassed that of China by the Edo Period. He remarked, “During the Edo Period, advances in Japanese scholarship surpassed those of China, Confucianism’s country of origin. This cultural background supported the Meiji Restoration. Scholarship actually took the place of the Edo class system. The academics of Japan are highly advanced and surpassed that of China. And the people of the Edo period developed a culture which became a model for the world.”

Toju Nakae was a pioneer in creating the advancement of Confucian culture during the Edo Period, and his spirit revealed that he was also a major player around the time of the founding of Japan (he was formerly Ame no minaka nushi no kami, the Lord of the August Center of Heaven). Furthermore, this Shinto god guided Confucius (from the spirit world). It reincarnated as Toju Nakae, the founder of the Japanese version of Neo-Confucianism, which Wang Yangming originally established in China, and Toju became a catalyst for the creation of Japan’s spiritual spine. Through this lineage, the patriots of the Meiji Restoration such as Shoin Yoshida were born.
- reference source : eng.the-liberty.com -


. Yoshida Shōin 吉田松陰 Yoshida Shoin . (1830 - 1859)
"A Most Audacious Young Man"

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Tooju shoin 藤樹書院 Toju Private School, Toju Study
滋賀県高島市安曇川町上小川 211 - Shiga, Takashima, Adogawa

Nakae Toju was born a peasant farmer's son in 1608, which was eight years after the battle of Sekigahara. At the age of nine, he was adopted by his grandfather who served under the Yonago Clan and taken to Yonago (in present Tottori Prefecture) leaving his parents. When he was eleven years old, his family moved to Ozu in Shikoku according to their lord's dominion transfer. It was the time when Toju determined his course of life to accomplish his learning.
Diligent Toju taught his theory even to his peers. While doing so, he passed no single day without turning his thoughts toward his mother living lonely in his native village. He therefore made up his mind to resign his post and return home to be with her when he was twenty-seven. Many people who adored Toju's attractive personality also moved to the village on after another being eager to learn from him.
Making every effort to make his mother relieved, he further deepened his study together with his disciples (he called them "Doshi" (Comrade) and interacted with local villagers equally to show them the right direction of life to which they should proceed. In 1648, he ended his life as young as forty-one years old.
Toju was the first Japanese who was titled as "Saint." He sympathized with Wang Yang-Ming's thoughts in the beginning, then developed it into his original way and established his own school. This is the reason why he has been respected as the founder of Japan's Yang-Ming-ism.

His family name was Nakae; original personal name was Gen; Chinese style name was Korenaga; commonly known name was Yoemon; and pseudonym was Mokken and Koken.
He set up the school regulations of Toju Shoin and named it "Toju-ki" after an old wisteria in the premises. According to this, his disciples and villagers respectfully called him "Master Toju. (Master Wisteria)"

"Ai-kei" (reverence)
Toju believed that reverence is an essential idea we should always retain inside our mind.
"Chi-Ryo-Chi"
Every man was born with a beautiful mind called "Ryo-Chi."



- - - - - History of Toju Shoin
Toju built a simple schoolhouse in the premises and instituted the school rules, "Toju-ki," when he was thirty-two years old, which was five years after his return from Ozu. His disciples built a new lecture hall afterwards, which was half a year before Toju ended his short life at the age of forty-one.
At the very time when his followers were about to succeed Toju's theory systematically, the Omizo Clan, which ruled this area, ordered them to dissolve the school and go out of the area. It was because the authorities could not permit them getting together to learn the spirit of "Chi-Ryo-Chi" before the political constitution of Japan was established.
Under the difficult condition, the followers secretly continued their meetings. It was not until about seventy years after Toju's death that their activity was publicly resumed. After this turning point, many literates from around the country visited here to give lectures, and in 1796, the Emperor Kokaku named the lecture hall "Tokuhon-do."
Many volunteers such as Kumazawa Banzan, Toju's direct disciple and a distinguished Confucian in the 17th century, had cherished Toju Shoin. In 1880, however, their effort turned out in vain as it was burnt down because of a big fire that consumed the whole village. The villagers managed to save the treasures from the fire, and two years later, they reconstructed a tentative lecture hall that has existed to this day. They abandoned their burning house and took a risk to carry out all the properties kept in Toju Shoin, such as treasures, daily necessaries, and books.
Moreover, the faithful villagers hoped to reconstruct the hall before they built their new house.

Annual events of Toju Shoin

- snip -
Bou: Appearance
Interact with others respectfully in peaceful appearance.
Gen: Speech
Speak to others in the way you are comfortably received.
Shi: Sight
Look at others and things respectfully and warmheartedly.
Cho: Hearing
Listen to others sympathetically from the speaker's point of view.
Shi: Consideration
Understand and think of others respectfully.

- source : city.takashima.shiga.jp -


. gakumonjo 学問所 Academies of Higher Learning - Introduction .

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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

鯉涼し藤樹書院の門川に
koi suzushi Tooju shoin no kadogawa ni

the carp feel so cool
at the river near the gate
of the Toju School


山方美智子 Yamagata Michiko




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Uchimura Kanzo 内村鑑三「代表的日本人」を読む
西郷隆盛・上杉鷹山・二宮尊徳・中江藤樹・日蓮





Representative Men of Japan (English Edition)


Uchimura Kanzō 内村鑑三
(March 26, 1861 – March 28, 1930) was a Japanese author, Christian evangelist, and the founder of the Nonchurch Movement (Mukyōkai) of Christianity in the Meiji and Taishō period Japan.
He is often considered to be the most well-known Japanese pre-World War II pacifist.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Adogawa town 安曇川町 Adogawa and Nakae - Photo collection
Statue of Nakae Toju expressing filial piety for his mother. and more . . .
- reference : photoguide.jp/pix -

- Reference - 中江藤樹 -
- Reference - English -


. Neo-Confucianism in the Edo period .

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05/07/2015

Nitta Yoshioki

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Nitta Yoshioki 新田義興
(? - 1358)

Yoshioki was the second son of Nitta Yoshisada,
who supported the Southern Court of Emperor Go-Daigo and Kamakura from the Hōjō clan in 1333. Yoshioki aided his father in the siege of Kamakura in 1333, and battled alongside Kitabatake Akiie. The following year, he fought alongside Kitabatake Akinobu, fortified Mt. Otoko, but was soon routed and forced to seek refuge at Mt. Yoshino.


The death of Nitta Yoshioki at the Yaguchi ferry - 矢ノ口渡合戦にて義興戦死図

The conflict with the Ashikaga clan continued for several decades, and in 1352, Yoshioki ousted Ashikaga Motouji from Kamakura, with the aid of his brother Nitta Yoshimune and cousin Wakiya Yoshiharu. Soon after taking control of the city, however, he was forced out by Ashikaga Takauji. Returning to the countryside of Kozuke and Musashi provinces, Yoshioki continued to fight for some time before being captured by Takezawa Nagahira. He was sentenced to death by the minister of Motouji, Hatakeyama Kunikiyo, and was executed at the age of 28 by drowning in the Tama River at Yaguchi in present-day Ōta ward of Tokyo.

A shrine at 矢口渡 Yaguchi no Watashi, the Nitta Shrine, is dedicated to Yoshioki. He is revered under the name Nitta Daimyōjin (新田大明神).

Yoshioki is the subject of an Edo-period kabuki play by Hiraga Gennai (1728 – 1780) titled Shinrei Yaguchi no Watashi.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


He committed suicide at Yaguchi village, and after that many terrible things happened in the village. The two warlords Edo and Takezawa 江戸 - 竹沢, who had fought against Yoshiaki also died of a curse.
So to appease his soul the shrine 新田神社 Nitta Jinja was erected.

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Nitta Jinja 新田神社



During the Nanboku-cho period, there was a brave and great samurai warrior named Nitta Yoshioki. He was the second son of Nitta Yoshisada. During that time, Japan was divided into North and South and they had repeatedly battled. Nitta Yoshioki fought for the Imperial Southern Court and became famous for being a strong warlord who could win against any kind of large army with his wisdom and bravery. However, he was killed by the enemies through a cowardly attack at the "Yaguchi Ferry." Enemies bored holes in the bottom of Nitta Yoshioki and his retainers' boat and fired off arrows from both banks. (Died on October 10, 1358) The Samurai warriors who engaged in Nitta Yoshioki's killing, was cursed by Yoshiaki's haunt and went crazy and died or saw ghost like fire balls, and lighting hit the place many times. Villagers witnessed these horrific events and decided to build a shrine for Nitta Yoshioki at the site of his death in order for his spirit to rest in peace.

Nitta Shrine is a shrine based on "Goryo Shinko” which is a Japanese belief. Japanese people viewed natural disasters that threatened people and great plagues as the work of evil spirits. Since the power of the spirits is enormously strong, people thought that the evil spirits could adversely save the people from accidents or disasters by enshrining them as a god. The belief was widely spread throughout Japan.



Nitta shrine commemorated the 650th anniversary of its construction in October 2008. The shrine is now well known as the "Good Luck Shrine" and is reverenced by Japanese.

- Homepage of the shrine
- source : nittajinja.org -



. goryoo, onryoo 御霊、怨霊 vengeful spirits .

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- quote -
Kabuki - Shinrei Yaguchi no Watashi
The play "Shinrei Yaguchi no Watashi" was originally written for the puppet theater (Bunraku) and staged in the 1st lunar month of 1770 in Edo at the Gekiza. It was adapted to Kabuki many years later and staged for the first time in the 8th lunar month of 1794 at the Kiriza.



- Summary
During the reign of the Emperor Godaigo, the wicked Ashikaga Takauji attempted to dethrone the Emperor and set up a pretender in his place. A great battle was fought on the Plain of Musashino, near what later became Edo. The commander of the Imperial army was Nitta Yoshioki, a famous soldier. He and his troops fought courageously, but were defeated through the treachery of a man whom Yoshioki believed to be his friend. Yoshioki himself was murdered by this same false friend at Yaguchi, where a ferry crossed the Tama River.
- source : www.kabuki21.com/yaguchi_no_watashi -


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. Nitta Yoshisada 新田義貞  (1302 - 1338) .


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- Reference - Japanese -

- Reference - English -


. minwa 民話 folktales / densetsu 伝説 Japanese Legends .


. Legends and Tales from Edo 江戸の伝説 .


- - - #nittayoshioki - - -
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22/08/2014

Nishikawa Terukazu

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Nishikawa Terukazu Nishikawa 西川輝和

painter 洋画家
Most of his themes are Buddha statues, which he often copies with great detail in an oil painting.


CLICK for more photos !

(1948 - ) - born in Nagoya
He now lives in Osaka 大阪府寝屋川市. 

member of 関西仏教美術会.

- - - - - His Homepage
- source : butsubi.web.fc2.com/nishikawa

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- - - statues in the spirit of Mokujiki 木喰 - - -

. Mokujiki (1718-1810) and his Fudo 木喰の不動さま .












. Fudō Myō-ō, Fudoo Myoo-Oo 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O
Acala Vidyârâja - Vidyaraja - Fudo Myoo .


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- Reference - 西川輝和 -

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20/05/2014

Nakamura Teijo

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Nakamura Teijo 中村汀女

1900年(明治33年)4月11日 - 1988年(昭和63年)9月20日)
(1900-1988)




- quote
eigentlich Nakamura Hamako (中村 破魔子) war eine japanische Haiku-Dichterin der Shōwa-Zeit. Sie war Ehrenbürgerin der Stadt Kumamoto.

Nakamura Teijo wurde am 11. April 1900 als einzige Tochter von Saitō Heishirō (斉藤 平四郎) und dessen Frau Tei (テイ) im Dorf Ezu, ehemaliger Landkreis Hōtaku (heute ein Teil der Stadt Kumamoto), Präfektur Kumamoto geboren.

1912 besuchte sie die Mädchenoberschule (heute die Erste Oberschule) der Präfektur Kumamoto und beendete 1918 den Zusatzkurs derselben Lehranstalt. 1920 heiratete sie den aus Kumamoto stammenden Finanzbeamten Nakamura Shigeki (中村 重喜) und reiste mit diesem im Zuge beruflicher Versetzungen von Ort zu Ort im Land umher.

1934 wurde sie Mitglied im Kreis der Haiku-Zeitschrift Hototogisu und veröffentlichte ihre erste Haiku-Sammlung Shunsetsu (春雪, dt. „Frühlingsschnee“).

1947, nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, gründete sie die Haiku-Zeitschrift Kazabana (風花, dt. etwa „Schneeflocken - Blumen im Wind“).

Nakamura Teijo bewunderte Sugita Hisajo und soll dieser zur Bekundung der Verehrung sogar Briefe („Fanpost“) gesendet haben. Sie wurde 1980 zum Bunka Kōrōsha, zur Person mit besonderen kulturellen Verdiensten, ernannt.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !




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She is one of the four famous T in the Haiku world

Hashimoto Takako 橋本多佳子
Hoshino Tatsuko 星野立子
Mitsuhashi Takajo 三橋鷹女

There name literally means "hawk woman".

. WKD : Mitsuhashi Takajo 三橋鷹女.


Chataku 茶托saucers for tea cups
Teijo, Haiku tr. by Gabi Greve


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ゆで卵むけばかがやく花曇り
yude tamago mukeba kagayaku hanagumori

Boiled egg
Freshly peeled and shining
in the spring haze


Teijô Nakamura (1900-1988) was born in Kumamoto Prefecture. In 1947, she founded the haiku magazine Kazabana, and in 1984, she received the prestigious Japanese Art Academy Award in the Literature Division for Japanese poetry.

- source : theartoftravel.net

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- quote

to nimo de yo fururu bakari ni haru no tsuki

come outside too
just to see
this spring moon

come out everyone
almost close enough to touch
the spring moon

~

todomare ba atari ni fuyuru tonbo kana

now I’ve stopped
the air is filling
with dragonflies

~

I close the screen doors —
fallen leaves quietly end
this very day

withered lotus leaves
some broken, some not,
float on the spring water

~

The season of changing clothes
For summer; I see a bridge
not so far away


- source : thegreenleaf.co.uk

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- Reference - Japanese -

- Reference - English -


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11/05/2013

- - - NNN

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Nagai Yasuo 永井康夫 Laquer Tableware

Nagarjuna 龍樹 Ryuuju and the Middle Way

Naito Meisetsu (Naitoo Meisetsu) (1847 - 1926)

Naito Joso (Naitoo Joosoo) (1662 - 1704)

Nakabayashi Chikuto 中林竹洞 (1776-1853) - Painter
source : us6.campaign-archive1.com

Nakae Tooju, Nakae Tōju 中江藤樹 Nakae Toju (1608 – 1648) Confucian philosopher

Nakagawa Kazumasa 中川一政 Painter (1893 - 1991)


Nakahama Manjirō 中濱 万次郎 Manjiro (January 27, 1827 – November 12, 1898), John Manjirō (or John Mung).
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


Nakamura Fumikuni 中村史邦 / 中村荒右衛門 - discpile of Basho

Nakamura Gakuryoo 中村岳陵 Gakuryo Nakamura 中村岳陵  - painter (1890-1969)

Nakamura Hisako 中村久子 - (1897 - 1968)
- Daruma Musume ダルマ娘 The Daruma Girl -

Nakamura Kanzaburo 中村勘三郎 Kabuki actor. (1955 - 2012)

Nakamura Kusatao 中村草田男 (1901-1983) Haiku

Nakamura Teijo 中村汀女 (1900-1988) Haiku



Nakaoka Toshio 中岡敏雄
Nami no Ihachi 波の伊八 "Ihachi the carver of waves" (1751-1824)


Nakaya Ukichiroo 中谷宇吉郎 Nakaya Ukichiro (1900 - 1962)
1900年(明治33年)7月4日 - 1962年( 昭和37年)4月11日)
researching snowflakes and ice in Hokkaido

Nakayama Gishuu 中山 義秀 Nakayama Gishu August 19. 1900-1969. Novelist
Gishuu Ki 義秀忌

Namikawa Yasuyuki  並河靖之 - (1845 - 1927) cloisonné artist

. Nanbu Toshinao 南部利直 . (1576 - 1632) Daimyo in Iwate
..... and Wanko Soba (わんこそば) Buckwheat noodle servings

Nantenboo 南天坊 Zen Priest and his Paintings

Naoe Kanetsugu 直江兼続公  Samurai

NARIHIRA, Ariwara no Narihira (在原業平) 825 - May 28, 880) waka poet
Narihira Ki 業平忌 - Zaigo Ki 在五忌


Nasu no Yoichi 那須与一 (c. 1169 – c. 1232) - Samurai


Natori Shunsen 名取春仙 1886 - 1960. Hanga artist.
and Ogiwara Seisensui 荻原井泉水


Natsume Seibi 夏目成美 (1748 - 1826)
One of the 18 big spenders of Edo and patron of Issa


Natsume Soseki 夏目漱石 (1867 – 1916)


. Nezumi Kozō ねずみ小僧 / 鼠小僧 Nezumi Kozo, a famous thief .
- - - Nakamura Jirokichi 仲村次郎吉 (1797 - 1831)


Nichiren 日蓮上人 Priest


. Nichoosai, Nichōsai 耳鳥斎 Nichosai, Nicho-sai . - (?1751 - 1802/03) Painter from Osaka

Niko Shodou - Callilgrapher from Hungary

Ninja 忍者 spies of the Edo period

Ninkoo 西岸寺任口 Saint Saiganji Ninko (1606 - 1686)

Ninomiya Sontoku 二宮尊徳 Kinjiroo 金次郎 - (1787 - 1856) - agricultural leader and philosopher

Nintoku Tenno 仁徳天皇 313 - 399


Nishijima Hyakusai 西島百歳 friend of Basho

Nishikawa Terukazu Nishikawa 西川輝和 - (1948 - ) - painter

Nishimura Koochoo 西村公朝 Nishimura Kocho (1915 - 2003)
Master Carver - "Tendai Daibusshi Hooin" 天台大仏師法印.


Nishiyama Soin and the Danrin School (Soo-In) 西山宗因, 談林派
(1605 - 1682)

Nitta Yoshisada 新田義貞 (1302-1338) samurai of the Kamakura period

. Nitta Yoshioki 新田義興 . (? - 1358) - son of Yoshisada



NOBUNAGA, Oda Nobunaga 織田信長 (June 23, 1534 – June 21, 1582)
Nobunaga Ki 信長忌 Nobunaga Memorial Day


NOGI, Nogi Maresuke (乃木希典) Count Nogi. (25 December 1849 - 13 September 1912)
General in the Imperial Japanese Army / Nogi Ki 乃木忌

Nomi no Sukune 野見宿禰 - Haniwa and Sumo

Nomura Kiwao 野村喜和夫 (1951 - )

Nomura Mansai 野村萬斎 Kyogen actor

Nooin Hooshi 能因法師 Noin Hoshi . Waka poet of the Nara period

NORINAGA, Motoori Norinaga (本居宣長)
21 June 1730 – 5 November 1801 / 陰暦九月二十九日
Norinaga Ki 宣長忌 - Suzu no Ya Ki 鈴の屋忌

. Nozarashi Gosuke 野晒五助 - noble Yakuza .


Nozawa Bonchoo 野沢 凡兆 Nozawa Boncho (1640? - 1714) - Haiku poet.
and his wife Tome, Ukoo 羽紅


. Nukata 額田王 Princess Nukata - waka poetess . - (638 - until 690's)


Nyogetsu-Ni 女月尼 and her brother Araimaru あらい丸
- the witch Takiyasha, daughter of Taira no Masakado



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